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19 th Century Westward Expansion. Jackson Era & Indian Removal. Questions. What were the ideological currents that influenced domestic & foreign policy during the mid 1800s? What are examples of United States Foreign policy during the 1800s?. Identifications. Manifest Destiny

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19 th century westward expansion

19th Century Westward Expansion

Jackson Era & Indian Removal

  • What were the ideological currents that influenced domestic & foreign policy during the mid 1800s?
  • What are examples of United States Foreign policy during the 1800s?
  • Manifest Destiny
  • Technological Progress
  • Westward Expansion
  • Indian Removal Act 1830
  • Cherokee & Choctaw Removal
  • Andrew Jackson
westward expansion technological progress
Westward Expansion & Technological Progress
  • The promise of technological “progress”
    • Labor
    • Expansion over indigenous America
slavery free wage labor
Slavery & “free” wage Labor
  • Goal to abolish servitude among whites
    • Create virtuous citizens
    • No slaves or hirelings
    • Small independent producers
manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • Senator Thomas Hart Benton Personified West & its expansionist spirit
    • While the “yellow” race was far above the “Black” and the “red” races, it was still far below the “White” and like all the rest “must receive an impression from the superior race whenever they come into contact”
    • Adams sons, the White race alone received the “divine command, to subdue and replenish the earth”
new democratic party 1824 1828
New Democratic Party1824-1828
  • Vanguard of promoting white equality and unity
  • Strongly pro-slavery
  • Anti-black rights
  • Intensification of racism accompanied the emergence of democracy in American life
    • Referring to free blacks
      • “the policy and power of the national and state governments are against them, the popular feeling is against them- the interests of our citizens are against them. Their prospects…are dreary, comfortless.”
jackson era 1824 1845
Jackson Era 1824-1845
  • Extension of white male democracy
  • The Second Great Awakening
  • Rise of Jackson’s Democrats (1824-28)
  • Jackson appeal – Indian removal
  • Spoils System
african americans
African Americans
  • Most Northerners lacks meaningful political rights
    • Five New England States allowed black men to vote on equal terms as white men
  • New York imposed property requirements only on black men
  • NJ, PA, CT disfranchised African Americans, were previously they had the right
jim crow north
Jim Crow North
  • Working man’s complicity in destruction of black rights and suffrage
    • New York 1825
    • Connecticut 1818
    • Columbia Pennsylvania 1834
    • Rhode Island 1822 (attempt)
the creation of the anti citizen
The creation of the anti-citizen
  • Rise of Popular Racism in the North
    • Tools of working class repression
      • New industrial morality 1812 – 1860
jackson s indian removal policy
Jackson’s Indian Removal Policy

Thomas Jefferson - 1st president to propose removal

James Monroe - 1st to propose a plan for removal

Andrew Jackson - 1824 began campaigning openly in favor of forced removal

Congress passed Removal Act of 1830

The Five “civilized” Southern Tribes
  • Cherokee
    • The Treaty of Hopewell in 1785
    • Sequoyah
  • Choctaw
  • Chickasaw
  • Creek/Muscogee
  • Seminole
forced removal legal resistance
Forced Removal & Legal Resistance
  • Cherokee Nation V. Georgia 1831 & Worcester V. Georgia in 1832
    • a domestic nation occupying its own territory and boundaries
    • the Laws of Georgia did not apply
    • States could not pass laws conflicting with federal Indian treaties
    • Federal government had an obligation to exclude white intruders from Indian lands
    • citizens had no right to enter
  • Jackson: “John Marshall had made his decision; now let him enforce it.”
cherokee removal
Cherokee Removal
  • The Treaty Party
    • sign a treaty removing them from the lands
    • Treaty of New Echota committed tribe to removal in 1835
  • The Ross party
    • Chief John Ross opposed removal at any cost.
  • Trail of Tears
    • 25-50% of population died : disease, depression, starvation and exposure
choctaw removal
Choctaw Removal
  • Removal began in 1830
    • Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
  • Government guarantee
    • to educate 40 Choctaw per year
    • provide 50,000 for public schools
    • 20,000/year for 20 years for supplies and moving expenses
choctaw removal1
Choctaw Removal
  • 1/4 chose to take allotments
    • Agent William Ward defrauded the allotted
    • speculators and officials swindled resulting in impoverished communities rampant with disease and death
    • Those who removed thousands died from malnutrition and disease, as well as exposure.
indigenous resistance
Indigenous Resistance
  • Sauk & Fox Nations led by Black Hawk re-crossed the Mississippi into Illinois in 1832, crushed by federal troops & Militia
  • Seminole, led by Osceola held out in the Everglades of Florida until 1842, some never gave up or signed treaties with the United States
labor resistance
Labor Resistance
  • Formation of Trade Unions
    • Courts called them conspiracies to restrain trade, and therefore illegal
  • Anti Renter Movement, Albany, New York, 1839
  • Dorr’s Rebellion, Rhode Island, 1841
    • Movement for electoral reform to change Charter rule that only land owners could vote