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Searching Technology For a Large Number Of Objects

Searching Technology For a Large Number Of Objects

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Searching Technology For a Large Number Of Objects

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  1. Searching TechnologyFor a Large Number Of Objects Kurt Stockinger and John Wu Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  2. Outline • Current work • FastBit: a compressed bitmap indexing package • Applications: • Grid Collector • DEX • TBitmapIndex • Network Flow Data Analysis • Future Plans • Extending the searching technology • Integrating with other SDM center technologies SDM All-hands, October 2005

  3. FastBit A compressed bitmap indexing technology for efficient searching of read-only data John Wu, Ekow Otoo, Arie Shoshani Kurt Stockinger, Doron Rotem

  4. FastBit Overview • FastBit is designed to search multi-dimensional data • Conceptually in table format • rows  objects • columns  attributes • FastBit uses vertical (column-oriented) organization for the data • Efficient for analysis of read-only data • FastBit uses compressed bitmap indices to speed up searches • Proven in analysis to be optimal for single-attribute queries • Superior to other optimal indices because they are also efficient for multi-attribute queries column row SDM All-hands, October 2005

  5. Grid Collector Put FastBit and SRM together to improve the efficiency of STAR analysis jobs John Wu, Junmin Gu, Jerome Lauret, Arthur M. Poskanzer, Arie Shoshani, Alexander Sim, Wei-Ming Zhang

  6. Grid Collector Features Key features of the Grid Collector: • Providing transparent object access • Selecting objects based on their attribute values • Improving analysis system’s throughput • Enabling interactive distributed data analysis SDM All-hands, October 2005

  7.  more selective less selective  Grid Collector Speeds up Analyses • Legend • Selectivity: fraction of events needed by the analysis • Speedup = ratio of time to read events without GC and with GC • Speedup = 1: speed of the existing system (without GC) • Results • When searching for rare events, say, selecting one event out of 1000 (selectivity = 0.001), using GC is 20 to 50 times faster • Even using GC to read 1/2 of events, speedup > 1.5 SDM All-hands, October 2005

  8. DEX: Using Efficient Bitmap Indices to Accelerate Scientific Visualization Kurt Stockinger, John Shalf, Wes Bethel, John Wu Computational Research Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California

  9. DEX: Dexterous Data Explorer Query Data Visualization Toolkit(VTK) 3D visualization of a Supernova explosion SDM All-hands, October 2005

  10. Performance Results with Scientific Data VTK rendering time: 0.2 – 2 seconds. One of the simplest tasks DEX performs is to find isosurface DEX is on average a factor of three to four faster than the best isosurface algorithm of VTK. SDM All-hands, October 2005

  11. Query-Driven Visualization of Combustion Data Set a) Query: CH4 > 0.3 b) Q: temp < 3 d) Q: CH4 > 0.3 AND temp < 4 c) Q: CH4 > 0.3 AND temp < 3 SDM All-hands, October 2005

  12. TBitmapIndex: An attempt to introduce FastBit to ROOT Kurt Stockinger1, John Wu1, Rene Brun2, Philippe Canal3 (1) Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, USA (2) CERN, Geneva, Switzerland (3) Fermi Lab, Batavia, USA

  13. Current Status • Built a prototype wrapper on FastBit called TBitmapIndex • Read one variable at a time into memory to build index • Each Index is currently stored in a binary file • Integrated bitmap indices to support: • TTree::Draw • TTree::Chain • Verified the performance advantage of FastBit vs. ROOT’s TTreeFormula SDM All-hands, October 2005

  14. Experiments With BaBar Data • Software/Hardware: • Bitmap Index Software is implemented in C++ • Tests carried out on: • Linux CentOS • 2.8 GHz Intel Pentium 4 with 1 GB RAM • Hardware RAID with SCSI disk • Data: • 7.6 million records with ~100 attributes each • Babar data set: • Bitmap Indices (FastBit): • 10 out of ~100 attributes • 1000 equality-encoded bins • 100 range-encoded bins SDM All-hands, October 2005

  15. EE-BMI: equality-encoded bitmap index RE-BMI: range-encoded bitmap index Size of Compressed Bitmap Indices SDM All-hands, October 2005

  16. Query Performance - TTreeFormula vs. Bitmap Indices Bitmap indices 10X faster than TTreeFormula SDM All-hands, October 2005

  17. An Application of TBitmapIndex-- Network Flow Data Analysis Kurt Stockinger, John Wu, Scott Campbell, Stephen Lau, Mike Fisk, Eugene Gavrilov, Alex Kent, Christopher E. Davis, Rick Olinger, Rob Young, Jim Prewett, Paul Weber, Thomas P. Caudell, E. Wes Bethel, Steve Smith LBNL, LANL, UNM

  18. Chasing the Track of a Network Scan • IDS log shows • Jul 28 17:19:56 AddressScan has scanned 19 hosts (62320/tcp) • Jul 28 19:19:56 AddressScan has scanned 19 hosts (62320/tcp) • Using FastBit/ROOT to explore what else might be going on • Queries prepared by Scott Campbell. More details at SDM All-hands, October 2005

  19. Are There More Scans? • Query: select ts/(60*60*24)-12843, IPR_C, IPR_D where IPS_A=211 and IPS_B=207 • More scans from the same subnet SDM All-hands, October 2005

  20. Who Is Doing It? • Query: select IPS_C, IPS_D where IPS_A==211 and IPS_B==207 • Picture: the histogram of the IPS_C and IPS_D • Five IP addresses started most of the scans! SDM All-hands, October 2005

  21. Future Plans Meet the challenges of searching in data intensive sciences

  22. Types of Searching Problems • Not practical to work on many terabytes of data simultaneously  work on a subset instead • Analyze the data collected last month • Analyze the data collected by Joe • Find the objects of interest • Find the flame front in combustion simulation • Find the top-talker in network communication • Knowledge discovery • Association rules • Cliques/connection subgraphs SDM All-hands, October 2005

  23. Searching Problems From SciDAC2 Appendix SDM All-hands, October 2005

  24. Searching Problems From SciDAC2 Appendix SDM All-hands, October 2005

  25. Features of These Search Problems • Large: many datasets are petabytes in size, billions records • Complex data: multi-dimensional arrays, user-defined data types, mixed simulation data with experimental data, regular data with attribute defined with ontologies (semantic networks) • Complex searching: data versioning, provenance-based search, catalog matching • Beyond searching: data mining and knowledge discovery • Real-time response: instrument control, interactive designed of experiments, computational steering • Integrated: searching is only a part of the overall data analysis, need to improve the overall throughput SDM All-hands, October 2005

  26. Improve Existing Searching Tools • FastBit is efficient for range queries; need to support other types of queries, e.g., joins • FastBit is efficient for read-only data; need to support update • FastBit supports up to 232 (4 billion) records; need to support at least 264 (16 quintillion) records • FastBit allows the user to choose from many different type of indices; need to automatically decide one for the user SDM All-hands, October 2005

  27. Expand The Repertoire Of Searching Tools • Support parallel index building and searching • Support search of semantic networks, combining ontology with structured data • Support data versioning (time stamps, provenance, …) • Support robust recovery (a la POSTGRES) • Support user-defined data types (ROOT) • Support user-defined functions • Support commonly used B-trees and R-trees • Support combined searching of structured and semi-structured data, extend SDM All-hands, October 2005

  28. Extend The Accessibility Of The Tools • Extend the collaboration with ROOT to make FastBit seamlessly available to users • Implemented a prototype, need a more integrated way to read and write ROOT files • Read data from other common file formats; write indices to the same file formats • netCDF, HDF (4/5) • Extend the advantage of searching to other steps of analysis • Feature tracking; extending it to higher dimension; more general image analysis • Make FastBit available in other forms • Web service, an actor in Kepler, … SDM All-hands, October 2005

  29. Summary • FastBit is efficient for range queries on read-only data • Integration of FastBit with ROOT is getting underway • TBitmapIndex prototype • Integration with other systems possible • Need to develop a short list based on target application area • Plan to extend FastBit • Integration with ROOT will bring up a list of requirements • Intend to target biological applications SDM All-hands, October 2005