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Demand for Career Guidance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries An Indicator for the Growing Need of More Effective Transition Support Services INAP Conference Turin, 17 September 2009 Helmut Zelloth / ETF
State-of-the-art definition • ….services intended to assist • ….individuals and groups • ….of any age • ….at any point throughout their lives • to make • ….(a) educational choices (b) training choices (c) occupational choices • …and to manage their careers
Paradigm shift … • …has started in EU and OECD countries • from intervention at key points in life to a lifelong perspective • from psychological ‘testing’ to «tasting the world of work» • from external expert support to career (self)-management skills • from individual guidance to group-and self-help approaches
Distinction from other concepts … • Induction • Promotion • Selection • Placement
Methods and research design • Sample of 5 low- and middle-income countries neighbouring to the EU (Montenegro, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Egypt, Georgia, Ukraine) • Field visits (interviews) and questionnaire • Comparative analysis includes 4 more countries (Turkey, Russia, Albania, Jordan) • Knowledge-sharing and –building tools
Demand and barriers • Barriers to guidance development • Push and pull factors shaping demand + Labour market developments + Education and training reform + Policy induced drivers + Push factors from supply side • Empirical evidence
Large informal economy Academic orientation / Shadow education system Social capital versus Human capital Tradition of ‘Informal guidance’ Affordability / Institutional barriers BARRIERS TO MEETING DEMAND FOR CAREER GUIDANCE Challenges
DRIVERS OF DEMAND FORCAREER GUIDANCEin low- and middle-income countries (1) EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE Very limited but positive (Montenegro, fYR of Macedonia) Research capacities in larger countries (Ukraine, Turkey, Russia)
DRIVERS OF DEMAND FORCAREER GUIDANCEin low- and middle-income countries (2) POLICY INDUCED DRIVERS • Policy beliefs • Policy actionism • Push factor from supply side • Foreign aid • EU integration process
DRIVERS OF DEMAND FORCAREER GUIDANCEin low- and middle-income countries • (3) LABOUR MARKET DEVELOPMENTS • Expanding and fast changing economy • Structural unemployment and labour market mismatch • Preventive labour market policy • Labour market flexibility/security imbalance • Social inclusion policy
DRIVERS OF DEMAND FORCAREER GUIDANCEin low- and middle-income countries • (4) EDUCATION + TRAINING REFORMS • Modernisation of primary education (tier-cycles) • Increased diversity, flexibility and complexity of learning opportunities • Drive towards higher education / qualifications • Reducing drop-out / more efficient use of investment in education
FINDINGS • LEVELS OF POLICY PROFILE (policy interest + policy priority - low, medium, high)– do not correlate with ETF geographical regions • DONOR-DRIVEN versus HOME-GROWNCareer Guidance Development (FYR Macedonia /Montenegro) • MODELS OF SERVICE PROVISION(psychological versus pedagogical; Centre approach; (Semi)specialist approach; Curriculum approach; Virtual approach)
(A) THE ‘CENTRE’ APPROACH - in educational settings - in public employment services - cross-sectoral settings • MACEDONIA (former Yugoslav Republic) • Career Centres in all VET schools • MONTENEGRO • CIPS – Centres for Career Information and Counselling in some • regions (public employment services) • UKRAINE • Career and Professional Guidance Centres (based in regional • PES), abolished but now discussed to re-introduced • GEORGIA • Career Consultants in VET Centres
(B) THE ‘CURRICULUM’ APPROACH • TURKEY • Career education included in class guidance programs in all types of schools + staff from public employment services (ISKUR) conduct class- and group discussions in general education and TVET schools • UKRAINE • Labour lessons and ‘Occupations of Today’ • EGYPT • Subject ‘Practical fields’ compulsory from Grades 7 to 9
(C) THE ‘VIRTUAL’AND WEB-APPROACH • TURKEY • Piloting a national web-based career information system • aiming to serve all target groups with a lifelong guidance • perspective • - databases on educational and training programmes • - standard occupational outlook supporting labour market information • - self-assessment tool • - web-based questionnaires on abilities, interests and occupational values • to help different target groups with self-exploration
Conclusions and pointerson career guidance • Better articulation of the demand and improved evidence on the outcomes needed - fostering research and evaluation - building up an evidence base • Wider access to career guidance services and changing the mode of delivery necessary - more resource-efficient approach (group- and self-help) - shift from a psychological to a pedagogical/hybrid delivery model (building on the new guidance paradigm, eg career self- managementskills, career education, work-tasting) - enhanced career information (print- and web-based) • Apprenticeship and career guidance - Despite impartiality of career guidance: new paradigm might positively correlate and impact on choosing VET / apprenticeship as pathways