APA Tip of the Day: Ellipsis in quotes “Use three spaced ellipsis points (…) within a sentence to indicate that you have omitted material from the original course. Use four points to indicate any omission between two sentences. The first point indicates the period at the end of the first sentence quoted, and the three spaced ellipsis points follow” (APA, 2010, pp. 172-173).
NOTE! “Do not use ellipsis points at the beginning or end of any quotation unless, to prevent misinterpretation, you need to emphasize that the quotation begins or ends in midsentence” (APA, 2010, p. 173).
Announcements • Reading reviews due now. • Language diary analysis assignment due next week. • Film review essay due March 13. E-mail me when you can get 2 other people to agree to watch a particular film with you. • Watch “There’s something about Mary” by the March 13th class.
February 20, 2014 Theoretical frameworks – Contrasting paradigms Today’s Readings: Mercer (1992) and McLaren (1994)
Social Construction of Disability This perspective holds that there is not a one-to-one correspondence between an individual’s condition and the extent to which, if at all, he/she is considered to have or considers him-herself to have a disability. Rather, a disability is formed on the basis of a complex interplay of a variety of internal and external factors.
Social Construction of Disability • Training • Adaptive devices • Compensatory strategies • Lack of above • Attitudes • Assumptions • Cultural beliefs Condition Disability
Heterogeneous “Mercer’s Quadrant” Subjective Objective Homogeneous Note: This table is adapted from Mercer, J. (1992). The impact of changing paradigms of disability on mental retardation in the year 2000. In L. Rowitz (Ed.), Mental retardation in the year 2000 (pp. 15-38). New York: Spring-Verlag.
(constructivist) (essentialist) Subjective Objective The nature of knowledge and truth (epistemology) Note: This table is adapted from Mercer, J. (1992). The impact of changing paradigms of disability on mental retardation in the year 2000. In L. Rowitz (Ed.), Mental retardation in the year 2000 (pp. 15-38). New York: Spring-Verlag.
“Mercer’s Quadrant” Heterogeneous The nature of society Homogeneous Note: This table is adapted from Mercer, J. (1992). The impact of changing paradigms of disability on mental retardation in the year 2000. In L. Rowitz (Ed.), Mental retardation in the year 2000 (pp. 15-38). New York: Spring-Verlag.
Society as Homogenous: • This is the assumption that “societies are based on a broad value consensus that provides unity and cohesion” (Mercer, 1992, p. 18). • Perspectives based on this assumption “define behaviors that interfere with the smooth operation of society as dysfunctional and persons who behave dysfunctionally as deviant or ‘disabled’” (Mercer, 1992, p. 19).
Society as Heterogeneous: This perspective “focuses on structural cleavages between social classes and ethnic groups and on differences between their social power, their cultural and linguistic backgrounds, and their norms and values. Society is characterized by the struggle for economic and political dominance. Inevitably, more powerful groups dominate less powerful groups and are able to enforce their norms, language, and culture on those who are subordinated…
Society as Heterogeneous: “…Part of the process of subordination consists of defining the language, behavior, values, and life-style of subordinated groups as unacceptable, thus ‘disabling’ many members of subordinate groups by making them ineligible for full participation in the most desirable roles in society.” (Mercer, 1992, p. 19).
Heterogeneous Application to scientific paradigms Critical Theory ??? Subjective Objective Interpretivism Positivism Homogeneous Note: This table is adapted from Mercer, J. (1992). The impact of changing paradigms of disability on mental retardation in the year 2000. In L. Rowitz (Ed.), Mental retardation in the year 2000 (pp. 15-38). New York: Spring-Verlag.
Application to Assessment paradigms Heterogeneous Conflict/ Interpretivist: Conflict/ Objectivist: • Pluralistic model • SOMPA • Advocacy-oriented assessment • Critical theory Subjective Objective Functionalist/ Objectivist: Interpretivist: • Psychometric model • Cognitive model • Medical model • Social system model • Humanistic models • Individualized models Homogeneous Note: This table is adapted from Mercer, J. (1992). The impact of changing paradigms of disability on mental retardation in the year 2000. In L. Rowitz (Ed.), Mental retardation in the year 2000 (pp. 15-38). New York: Spring-Verlag.
How does Mercer’s “subjective-objective” continuum relate to the distinction between essentialism and constructivism presented by Rosenblum and Travis (2006)?
Heterogeneous Subjective Objective Homogeneous Small group activity: In your small groups, talk about where you think you fall on this grid and explain why.
Quick Write: What are some ways in which an individual's social characteristics (i.e. social class, gender, age, language background, and/or ethnicity) might interact with his/her physical, intellectual, and/or psychological characteristics to produce a greater or lesser disability?
Handicapism How do negative perceptions of White people by African Americans affect White people as a group?
Handicapism How do negative perceptions of African Americans by White people affect African Americans as a group?
Handicapism “I am stopped regularly by the Police in Virginia, but never given a ticket because I have never broken the law. The ACLU calls this phenomenon DWB, driving while black.”
Handicapism How do negative perceptions of people without disabilities by people with disabilities affect people without disabilities as a group?
Handicapism • neurotypicals • temporarily able bodied (TAB) • normals
Handicapism How do negative perceptions of people with disabilities by people without disabilities affect people with disabilities as a group?
Underlying Assumptions of Critical Theory: • Power is the basis of society. • Certain groups are privileged over others. • All thought is mediated by power relations that are socially and historically constituted. • Information always involves acts of human judgment and interpretation.
More Assumptions of Critical Theory: • Language is central to the formation of subjectivity. • Oppression (race, class, gender, age, for example) is reproduced when subordinates accept their status or situation as natural, necessary, and/or inevitable.
Final Assumptions of Critical Theory: • There is no such thing as neutrality. • Traditional research ideas of internal and external validity are replaced by critical trustworthiness. adapted from: http://www.ed.psu.edu/ci/CS597/definition.hml
“Critical theory is critical in two senses: it brings to our consciousness oppression of which we may or may not have been aware, and it calls for "criticism of life" to resist and change the existing system of domination and exploitation.” Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas, & Emery, 1978 http://www.mega.nu:8080/ampp/176krkpt.htm
(McLaren, 1994, p. 182) “Hegemony refers to the maintenance of domination not by the sheer exercise of force but primarily through consensual social practices, social forms, and social structures produced in specific sites such as the church, the state, the school, the mass media, the political system, and the family…”
(McLaren, 1994, p. 182) “Hegemony is a struggle in which the powerful win the consent of those who are oppressed, with the oppressed unknowingly participating in their own oppression.”
Think-pair-share: • What have you learned tonight about theoretical frameworks? • About critical theory? Take notes!
Looking ahead… Topic: How disability gets constructed: The power of language Read: Peter (2000) AND Haller, Dorries, & Rahn (2006)