Cookies! According to www.kitchenproject.com, cookies were created by accident! Cooks used a small amount of cake batter to test their oven temp. before baking a large cake. These little test cakes were called “koekje” meaning “little Cake” in Dutch.
Targets: Cookies • LT: Understand that the characteristics of cookies (final outcome) are determined by their ingredients, the way they are mixed, the way they are shaped and the way they are baked. • PT: • Be able to identify correct utensils and ingredients unique to baking and demonstrate correct/appropriate use. • Demonstate proper scaling and measurement techniques unique to baking. • Participate in the production of a variety of types of cookies.
Essential Questions • What are the ingredients used in baking and in what way do they contribute to the final outcome? • What are the different kinds of cookies and what determines them?
Standard • ACF 7 – Basic Baking • To apply the fundamentals of baking science to the preparation of a variety of products.
Basic ingredients and their function • Flour – gluten provides structure, some flavor • Eggs – provide structure and moisture • Sugar – predominantly flavor, also browning, helps cookies expand • Fat – adds moisture and contributes to tenderness and mouth-feel • Leaveners – includes baking soda, baking powder, used to increase volume in dough • Flavorings – adds flavor, duh • Garnish – add flavor, texture, eye appeal (ex. Choc. Chips, nuts, icing, etc.)
Types of Cookies • 3 main types: • Drop • Bar • Rolled
Drop • Most common type of cookie • Formed by scooping and “dropping” dough onto pan • Most recipes for d.c. have high %-age of fat, fat melts to give cookie its final shape • Can be crispy or chewy depending on other ingredient amt and how long baked. • Two common types of drop : choc. Chip and oatmeal
Drop by spoon, drop by scooperWhat’s the diff? • Scoopers allow: • Portion control, which affects cost analysis and control • Aesthetics – cookies will have a uniform shape • IMHO, much more efficient than using two spoons.
Special kinds of drop cookies • Ice box • aka refrigerator cookies, formed into cylinder, chilled, sliced then baked. • Ideal for high-volume production • Can be held in freezer 2-3 mo. • Ex. Sugar cookies, Pillsbury cookies • Especially if flour to fat ratio is low, dough is too soft to handle
Ice box cookie dough • Chilled, sliced and ready to bake
Special, con’t • Piped • Made of soft dough, piped with pastry bag • Can be made into decorative shapes • Ex. Spritz, lady fingers, macaroons • Stenciled • Delicate and wafer like, made with batter that can be spread very thin into stencils, or freehand • Recipes contain high %age of sugar and eggs to flour • Bake, then while still hot, remove and roll, curl or drape over object, made into edible container • Ex. Tuile (tweel)
Piped and Stenciled • Spritz and Lady Fingers (LF are used in Tiramisu) • Tuile (tweel)
Bar Cookies • Made from soft batter (not dough – what’s the diff?), spread into pan, once baked, cut into individual cookies • Ex. Lemon Bars • Twice baked cookies • Dough shaped into log, baked, sliced, and baked a second time • Ex. Biscotti
Rolled • Aka cut-out cookies • Stiff dough, rolled flat, cut into decorative shapes using cookie cutters. • Ex. Gingerbread man • Molded – variation of cut out • Made w/ stiff dough that is shaped by hand • Dough can then be stamped, pressed or piped into carved molds • Ex. Peanut butter, Russian tea cookie (Melting Moments), Chinese Almond
Ready, Set, Bake • Bring ingredients to room temp (cold ingredients can cause dough to separate, lose uniform consistency) • MEASURE CORRECTLY • Prepare pan • Flat cookie sheet • Use parchment paper or silicone mat • Never use a hot pan (melts cookie dough)
Ready, Set, Bake • Mix properly (final texture, shape an structure dependent on mixing method used) • Creaming method – blend fat and sugars until smooth and creamy • Do not over cream = cookie spreads too much during cooking • Do not over mix = developed gluten results in less tender cookie, does not spread properly • Shape – techniques vary per cookie, see handout • Bake • Bake properly to attain desired shape, size, flavor and texture • Preheat to correct temp • Bake one pan at a time, use center rack • ½ way through, rotate • Cool • To compensate for carryover baking (still bakes after comes out of oven), remove when light golden brown on bottom and edges • Generally, remove cookies about 1-2 min. after it comes out to a cooling rack