Women’s rights movement CMST 150 Yu Zhang Yujing Yang
Background • During the 1950s and 1960s, increasing numbers of married women entered the labor force, but in 1963 the average working woman earned only 63 percent of what a man made. That year author Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, an explosive critique of middle-class patterns that helped millions of women articulate a pervasive sense of discontent. Arguing that women often had no outlets for expression other than "finding a husband and bearing children," Friedan encouraged readers to seek new roles and responsibilities, to seek their own personal and professional identities rather than have them defined by the outside, male-dominated society. • The women's movement of the 1960s and 1970s drew inspiration from the civil rights movement. It was made up mainly of members of the middle class, and thus partook of the spirit of rebellion that affected large segments of middle-class youth in the 1960s. Another factor linked to the emergence of the movement was the sexual revolution of the 1960s, which in turn was sparked by the development and marketing of the birth-control pill. • Reform legislation also prompted change. During debate on the 1964 Civil Rights bill, conservatives hoped to defeat the entire measure by proposing an amendment to outlaw discrimination on the basis of gender as well as race. First the amendment, then the bill itself, passed, giving women a legal tool to secure their rights. • In the mid- to late 1970s, however, the women's movement stagnated. It failed to broaden its appeal beyond the middle class. Divisions arose between moderate and radical feminists. Conservative opponents mounted a campaign against the Equal Rights Amendment, and it died in 1982 without gaining the approval of the 38 states needed for ratification. http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-131.htm
Worldviews, Values and Norms • Cultural group that is most significantly impacted by the issue： Women • Worldviews: In Among Cultures, Hall states, “Worldview are abstract notions about the way the world is” (Hall, 2005, p.31). and “Worldviews are a vital part of who we are, but not a part we usually think much about” (Hall, 2005, p.31). Some women’s worldviews are: “Women are being forced back to being the weaker sex because society is unable or unwilling to protecting us.” “Because I am a woman, I must make unusual efforts to succeed. If I fail, no one will say, ‘She doesn't have what it takes.’ They will say, ‘Women don't have what it takes.’” “Women are the only oppressed group in our society that lives in intimate association with their oppressors.” • Values: In Among Cultures, Hall states, “Values are grounded in beliefs about the way the world should be rather than assumptions about the way the world is” (Hall, 2005, p.49-50). Some women’s values are: “Never let the hand you hold, hold you down.” “A woman’s work is never done.” “What women do is absolutely crucial to the sustainability and survival of the family.” “If women are valued for who they are, there will be a greater chance that they’ll be valued for what they do.” • Norms: According to Hall, “Norms are social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do” (Hall, 2005, p.52). For women, the common norms are: Women should do housework. Women should stay at home and take care of kids.
Ways the issues of women’s rights movement are impacting women Women’s suffrage • The women’s suffrage movement in the United States achieved its goal of winning full voting rights for women when the nineteenth amendment was ratified in 1920. • By seeking a voice in politics, women were challenging the conventional belief that women's proper sphere of influence was domestic, while men properly dominated the public sphere, including the political process. (Click to watch the video) http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?title=US_Women_s_Suffrage&video_id=139813
Ways the issues of women’s rights movement are impacting women Women's Equality Day • Every president had published a proclamation for Women's Equality Day since 1971 when legislation was first introduced in Congress by Bella Abzug. • This resolution was passed designating August 26 of each year as Women's Equality Day. • The date was selected to commemorate the 1920 passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, granting women the right to vote, also called attention to women's continuing efforts toward full equality. • Workplaces, libraries, organizations, and public facilities now participate with Women's Equality Day programs, displays, video showings, or other activities. http://www.wand.org/2011/08/26/on-womens-equality-day-congress-far-from-equal/ http://nwhp.org/resourcecenter/equalityday.php http://womenshistory.about.com/od/wed/Womens_Equality_Day_August_26.htm
The Full Text of Resolution • Joint Resolution of Congress, 1971 Designating August 26 of each year as Women's Equality Day. • WHEREAS, the women of the United States have been treated as second-class citizens and have not been entitled the full rights and privileges, public or private, legal or institutional, which are available to male citizens of the United States; and • WHEREAS, the women of the United States have designated August 26, the anniversary date of the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, as symbol of the continued fight for equal rights: and • WHEREAS, the women of United States are to be commended and supported in their organizations and activities, • NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that August 26 of each year is designated as "Women's Equality Day," and the President is authorized and requested to issue a proclamation annually in commemoration of that day in 1920, on which the women of America were first given the right to vote, and that day in 1970, on which a nationwide demonstration for women's rights took place. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women's_Equality_Day
Extra Reading • Presidential Proclamation--Women's Equality Day 2011 • Women's Equality Day: What the Heck Do I Tell My Daughter? http://hminews.com/opini/presidential-proclamation-womens-equality-day-2010/ http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/08/25/presidential-proclamation-womens-equality-day http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kristin-rowefinkbeiner/womens-equality-day---wha_b_937851.html
Stereotypes and Prejudice Definitions: • Stereotypes: In Among Cultures, Hall states, “A category highlights what two or more things have in common in contrast to other things that do not have this commonality” (Hall, 2005, p.192). • Prejudice: According to Among Cultures, Hall declares, “Prejudice are always negative…Prejudice is based on categorization and the desire to control others in ways that demean them directly or indirectly” (Hall, 2005, p.203). Stereotypes and prejudice women faced as a result of women’s rights movement: • The most common stereotype and prejudice women faced were women were not as good as men and they could not afford the things men could do. • After women’s suffrage and Women’s Equality Day, the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits any US citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex. It breaks the stereotypes and prejudice that women faced.
intercultural/intergroup conflict In Among Cultures, Hall defines intercultural conflict as “an expressed struggle between at least two parties who perceive incompatible goals and/ or potential interference from the other party in achieving the desired goal” (Hall, 2005, p.233). Priority conflict • According to Among Cultural, Hall claims, “Priority conflicts are distinct from the other types of conflict because they involve a judgment of the relative moral worth of certain actions…Priority conflicts are emotional and often reveal the different values people and communities place on both different actions and different kinds of people” (Hall, 2005, p. 238). Women faced as a result of women’s rights movement • The most common priority conflict women faced was they were judged in an inferior condition against men. They were not supported to do what men could do. • In the women’s rights movement, woman was the weaker party while man was the stronger. If woman got more rights, man would lose the priority. • After the women’s rights movement, women were regard as equal as men.
Organization • In the USA, the National Organization for Women (NOW) was created in 1966 with the purpose of bringing about equality for all women. • The National Organization for Women (NOW) is the largest organization of feminist activists in the United States which has 500,000 contributing members and 550 chapters in all 50 states and the District of Columbia now. http://sacfs.asn.au/news/2011/06/06_20_dr_nancy_klimas_to_be_given_womens_health_award.htm http://www.now.org/organization/info.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Organization_for_Women
Organization • Women were not being treated fairly in the workplace and the EEOC was unable to enforce the Civil Rights Act. So, in June 1966, while attending the Third National Conference on the Commission on the Status of Women in Washington, DC, Betty Friedan and twenty-eight women founded the National Organization for Women (NOW). http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2006/02/05/national/05friedan_CA1.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Organization_for_Women
Organization • The purpose of the organization is to take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in true equal partnership with men. • NOW’s statement of purpose • NOW works to eliminate discrimination and harassment in the workplace, schools, the justice system, and all other sectors of society; secure abortion, birth control and reproductive rights for all women; end all forms of violence against women; eradicate racism, sexism and homophobia; and promote equality and justice in our society. • An important element of the program is comprehensive leadership training. They hold a series of workshops to empower young feminists and give them the tools and knowledge to become leaders on their campuses and in communities. They will learn the organizing skills from leaders of the most prestigious feminist organization in the world. http://www.now.org/organization/info.html http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111now.html
Learning Outcomes • We each participated in active learningwhen we did the final project. We completed assignment on time and asked for help when needed. • We each met think critically and creatively when we chose information through outside sources. We utilized different sources to explore useful information, analyzed and evaluated each of them. • Each of the conversations that we had within our group gave us experience in communicating with clarity and originality. we learned and were able to clearly articulate opinions and support our ideas in easy ways in order to organize coherent PowerPoint. We used internet to gather information and communicated with each other online. • Finally, we learned to interact in diverse and complex environments by coming to a consensus within the small group and listening to each other’s ideas with openness and respect. We never had conflicts or disagreements with each other; we built a peaceful and successful group environment.
Reference Category. (n.d.). Women's Equality Day. Women's History - Comprehensive Women's History Research Guide. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/wed/Womens_Equality_Day_August_26.htm contrast., & Spartan. (n.d.). Women's rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women's_rights Equality Day: What the Heck Do I Tell My Daughter?. (n.d.). Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kristin-rowefinkbeiner/womens-equality-day---wha_b_937851.html Feminism Quotes, Sayings about Women's Rights, Sexism, Gender Liberation. (n.d.). The Quote Garden - Quotes, Sayings, Quotations, Verses. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from http://www.quotegarden.com/feminism.html Friedlander, D. I., 1920, w. w., Khazars, s. u., me, i. p., me--, d., Jews, w. i., et al. (n.d.). Rebellious Thoughts of a Woman: WorldView.Rebellious Thoughts of a Woman. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from http://www.rebelliousthoughtsofawoman.com/rebellious_thoughts_of_a_/worldview/ Hall, B. J. (2005). Among cultures: the challenge of communication(2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Information about NOW. (n.d.).National Organization for Women (NOW). Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www.now.org/organization/info.html law, f., & 1964., i. T. (n.d.). National Organization for Women.History Department, Hanover College. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111now.html National Organization for Women - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Organization_for_Women National Women's History Project. (n.d.). National Women's History Project. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://nwhp.org/resourcecenter/equalityday.php Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineteenth_Admendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution Presidential Proclamation--Women's Equality Day | The White House. (n.d.). The White House. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/08/25/presidential-proclamation-womens-equality-day TeacherTube Videos - US Women's Suffrage. (n.d.). TeacherTube - Teach the World | Teacher Videos | Lesson Plan Videos | Student Video Lessons | Online Teacher Made Videos | TeacherTube.com. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?title=US_Women_s_Suffrage&video_id=139813 The Path of the Women's Rights Movement. (n.d.). ibiblio - The Public's Library and Digital Archive. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www.ibiblio.org/prism/mar98/path.html The Women's Suffrage Movement In The United States. (n.d.).Essortment Articles: Free Online Articles on Health, Science, Education & More.... Retrieved December 12, 2011, from http://www.essortment.com/womens-suffrage-movement-united-states-32594.html United States History - The Women's Movement. (n.d.).Country Studies. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-131.htm Women's Equality Day - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.).Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women's_Equality_Day Zerbisias, A. (n.d.). Feminomics: calculating the value of 'women's work' - thestar.com. News, Toronto, GTA, Sports, Business, Entertainment, Canada, World, Breaking - thestar.com. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from http://www.thestar.com/news/insight/article/882500--feminomics-calculating-the-value-of-women-s-work