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Starter. Aristotle’s Four Causes. Complete a speech bubb le for Plato and Aristotle. What caused this?. Aristotle’s 4 causes. Learning Outcomes. All students will be able to explain Aristotle’s 4 causes . (grade E & D).

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Starter

Aristotle’s Four Causes

Complete a speech bubble for Plato and Aristotle

aristotle s 4 causes
Aristotle’s 4 causes

Learning Outcomes

All students will be able to explain Aristotle’s 4 causes.

(grade E & D)

MOST students will be able to analyse Aristotle’s 4 causes in relation to actuality & potentiality

(grade C)

SOME students will be able to evaluate Aristotle’s 4 causes to determine whether it proves there is a Prime Mover

(grade B & A)

everything is caused by something else
Everything is caused by something else…

A B C Forever?

A is caused by B

B is caused by C

Is this chain of cause and effect infinite?

potentiality actuality
Potentiality & Actuality

Making Links

There are two states of being:

Potentiality – the possibility of doing something or becoming

something.

Actuality – when potential

is achieved.

Your Task:

Give an example of a thing that has POTENTIALITY and how it can become a thing of ACTUALITY

for example
For example…
  • You have the potential to achieve a grade A in AS Religious Studies.
  • It is not yet actualised because you haven’t achieved it yet.

Just because there is the potential does not mean it will definitely be actualised.

You have to work hard to achieve that A!

potentiality to actuality
Potentiality to Actuality

The sperm and the egg have the potential to become …

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But something needs to cause the sperm and the egg to change from potentiality to actuality.

It cannot happen on its own.

aristotle was interested in the movement from potentiality to actuality
Aristotle was interested in the movement from potentiality to actuality…

He thought that everything single thing that is actualised has four causes of existence:

Material

Efficient

Formal

Final

material cause
Material Cause
  • The things out of which an object is created.
efficient cause
Efficient Cause
  • The way in which an object is created.
the formal cause
The Formal Cause
  • The expression, idea or plan that led to the creation of an object. Its characteristics.
the final cause
The Final Cause
  • The aim for which an object is created.
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What caused this?

Material Cause:

What is it made of?

Efficient Cause: How does it happen? Not just the person

Formal Cause

What are its characteristics?

Final Cause

What is it for? The purpose

what about a human being
What about a human being?

What are our

Material

Efficient

Formal

Final

causes?

what about the earth
What about the earth?

What are our

Material

Efficient

Formal

Final

causes?

e verything is caused by something else
Everything is caused by something else…

A B C Forever?

A is caused by B

B is caused by C

Is this chain of cause and effect infinite?

But for Aristotle this chain cannot go on forever… Who made the chain come into being?

the prime mover
The Prime Mover
  • For Aristotle the chain of cause and effect cannot go on forever.
  • So we must ask what started off the chain?
  • Aristotle argued there must be a thing that started it with out itself being caused.
  • An Uncaused Cause
  • Or the Prime (meaning first) Mover
where is the prime mover
Where is the Prime Mover?
  • Everything within time and space is subject to change and we can ask of everything within the Universe, even the universe itself, what caused it to be?
  • What causes everything to be or started off the chain of cause and effect must therefore be outside of time and space.
homework
Homework
  • “Aristotle has got it right.” Do you agree?
aristotle s 4 causes1
Aristotle’s 4 Causes

Learning Outcomes

All students will be able to explain Aristotle’s 4 causes.

(grade E & D)

Review and Reflect:

Summarise what you have learnt today.

Write 10 bullet points

MOST students will be able to analyse Aristotle’s 4 causes in relation to actuality & potentiality

(grade C)

SOME students will be able to evaluate Aristotle’s 4 causes to determine whether it proves there is a Prime Mover

(grade B & A)