Starter

1 / 25

# Starter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Starter. Aristotle’s Four Causes. Complete a speech bubb le for Plato and Aristotle. What caused this?. Aristotle’s 4 causes. Learning Outcomes. All students will be able to explain Aristotle’s 4 causes . (grade E &amp; D).

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Starter' - clay

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Starter

Aristotle’s Four Causes

Complete a speech bubble for Plato and Aristotle

Aristotle’s 4 causes

Learning Outcomes

All students will be able to explain Aristotle’s 4 causes.

MOST students will be able to analyse Aristotle’s 4 causes in relation to actuality & potentiality

SOME students will be able to evaluate Aristotle’s 4 causes to determine whether it proves there is a Prime Mover

Everything is caused by something else…

A B C Forever?

A is caused by B

B is caused by C

Is this chain of cause and effect infinite?

Potentiality & Actuality

There are two states of being:

Potentiality – the possibility of doing something or becoming

something.

Actuality – when potential

is achieved.

Give an example of a thing that has POTENTIALITY and how it can become a thing of ACTUALITY

For example…
• You have the potential to achieve a grade A in AS Religious Studies.
• It is not yet actualised because you haven’t achieved it yet.

Just because there is the potential does not mean it will definitely be actualised.

You have to work hard to achieve that A!

Potentiality to Actuality

The sperm and the egg have the potential to become …

But something needs to cause the sperm and the egg to change from potentiality to actuality.

It cannot happen on its own.

He thought that everything single thing that is actualised has four causes of existence:

Material

Efficient

Formal

Final

Material Cause
• The things out of which an object is created.
Efficient Cause
• The way in which an object is created.
The Formal Cause
• The expression, idea or plan that led to the creation of an object. Its characteristics.
The Final Cause
• The aim for which an object is created.

What caused this?

Material Cause:

Efficient Cause: How does it happen? Not just the person

Formal Cause

What are its characteristics?

Final Cause

What is it for? The purpose

What are our

Material

Efficient

Formal

Final

causes?

What are our

Material

Efficient

Formal

Final

causes?

Everything is caused by something else…

A B C Forever?

A is caused by B

B is caused by C

Is this chain of cause and effect infinite?

But for Aristotle this chain cannot go on forever… Who made the chain come into being?

The Prime Mover
• For Aristotle the chain of cause and effect cannot go on forever.
• So we must ask what started off the chain?
• Aristotle argued there must be a thing that started it with out itself being caused.
• An Uncaused Cause
• Or the Prime (meaning first) Mover
Where is the Prime Mover?
• Everything within time and space is subject to change and we can ask of everything within the Universe, even the universe itself, what caused it to be?
• What causes everything to be or started off the chain of cause and effect must therefore be outside of time and space.
Homework
• “Aristotle has got it right.” Do you agree?
Aristotle’s 4 Causes

Learning Outcomes

All students will be able to explain Aristotle’s 4 causes.

Review and Reflect:

Summarise what you have learnt today.

Write 10 bullet points

MOST students will be able to analyse Aristotle’s 4 causes in relation to actuality & potentiality