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Introduction to the Metric System . ACS Ms. Grogan. History . Created during French Revolution in 1790 French King overthrown National Assembly of France sets up new government French Academy of Science told to design new system of weights and measures

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history
History
  • Created during French Revolution
    • in 1790
    • French King overthrown
    • National Assembly of France sets up new government
    • French Academy of Science told to design new system of weights and measures
    • Lavaiosie appointed to head committee
history1
History
  • Called Systeme International d’Unitès,
    • or SI - International System of Units
  • Revised periodically
    • by International Bureau of Weight and Measures
customary units of measurement
Customary Units of Measurement
  • The English System
    • a collection of functionally unrelated units
      • Difficult to convert from one unit to another
      • Ex. 1 ft = 12 inches = 0.33 yard = 1/5280 miles
  • Customary Units
    • length - inch, foot, yard, mile
    • weight/mass - ounce, pound
    • volume - teaspoon, cup, quart, gallon
    • temperature - degrees Fahrenheit
    • time - minutes, hours
advantages of using the metric system
Advantages of Using the Metric System
  • Universal - used everywhere
    • by all scientists to communicate
    • by all industrialized nations
      • except United States
      • U.S. loses billions of dollars in trade
advantages of using the metric system1
Advantages of Using the Metric System
  • Simple to use
    • A few base unitsmake up all measurements
      • length - meter
      • mass - grams
      • volume - liters
      • temperature – degrees Celsius
      • time - seconds
advantages of using the metric system2
Advantages of Using the Metric System
  • There is only one unit of measurement for each type of quantity
    • To simplify things, very small and very large numbers are expressed as multiples of the base unit.
      • Prefixes are used to represent how much smaller or larger the quantity is compared to the base unit.
  • Easy toconvert from one unit to another
    • shift decimal point right
    • shift decimal point left
advantages of using the metric system3
Advantages of Using the Metric System
  • Same set of prefixes for all units
    • Greek - multiples of the base
      • kilo -1000 × the base
      • hecto - 100 × the base
      • deka - 10 × the base
    • Latin - fractions of the base
      • deci - tenths of the base
      • centi -hundredths of the base
      • milli - thousandths of the base
  • Mnemonic: “Kids Have Dropped Over Dead Converting Metrics.”
units of length
Units of Length
  • Length - the distance between two points
    • standard unit is meter(m)
    • long distances are measured in km
  • Measured using a meter stick or ruler
prefixes and units of length
Prefixes and Units of Length
  • centimeter - cm
    • 1 m = 100 cm
    • 1 cm = 1/100th m
  • millimeter - mm
    • 1 m = 1000 mm
    • 1 mm = 1/1000th m
    • 10 mm = 1 cm
    • measures very small lengths
  • kilometer - km
    • 1 km = 1000 m
    • 1 m = 1/1000th km
    • measures long distances
measuring mass
Measuring Mass
  • Mass - the quantity of matter in an object
    • standard unit is gram(g)
  • Measured using a digital scale or triple beam balance
measuring volume and capacity
Measuring Volume and Capacity
  • Volume - the amount of space occupied by an object
    • standard unit is liter(L)
    • 1 L = 1000 ml = 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3
    • Measured using a graduated cylinder
  • Capacity - a measure of the volume inside a container
prefixes and units of volume
Prefixes and Units of Volume
  • Liter - L
    • 1 L = 1000 milliliters
    • 1 L = 1000 cubic centimeters = 1000 cm3
  • milliliter - mL
    • measures small volumes
    • 1 mL = 1 cubic centimeter
    • 1000 mL = 1 Liter
    • 1 mL = 1/1000th liter
  • kiloliter - kL
    • measures large volumes
    • 1 kL = 1000 L
measuring volume
Measuring Volume
  • Measured with a graduated cylinder
    • Determine value of each mark on the scale
    • Read scale using the lowest position of the meniscus
      • Measure the meniscus at eye level from the center of the meniscus.
      • In the case of water and most liquids, the meniscus is concave. Mercury produces a convex meniscus.
displacement
Displacement
  • Displacement
    • Amount of water an object replaces
    • Equal to its volume
volume of a solid irregular object
Volume of a Solid, Irregular Object
  • Displacement - amount of water an object replaces
    • Procedure
      • Place graduate beaker beneath spout
      • Fill the overflow canwith water until water begins to spill
      • Empty the excess water
      • Place object to be measured into the overflow can
      • Remove when water stops flowing out of the can
      • Measure the displaced water using a graduated cylinder.
volume of a solid irregular object1
Volume of a Solid, Irregular Object
  • Displacement
    • Calculate the difference between the initial and final volume measurement.
volume of a solid regular object
Volume of a Solid, Regular Object
  • Volume -length x width x height
    • V = 2.8 cm x 3.2 cm x 2.5 cm
    • V = 22.4 cm3
    • Measured with a ruler
calculating density
Calculating Density
  • Density - a specific property of matter that is related to its mass divided by the volume.
    • D=M/V
    • the ratio of mass to volume
      • used to characterize a substance
    • each substance has a unique density
      • Units for density include:
        • g/mL
        • g/cm3
        • g/cc
measuring time
Measuring Time
  • Time
    • metric unit is second (s)
measuring temperature
Measuring Temperature
  • Temperature - the degree of “hotness” of an object
    • standard unit is celsius (°C)
    • measured with a thermometer
temperature conversions
Temperature Conversions
  • Conversion Between Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin
  • Example:
    • Convert 75 ºC to ºF
    • Convert -10 ºF to ºC
measurement unit conversion
Measurement Unit Conversion
  • You can convert between units of measurement
    • within the metric system
    • between the English system and metric system
measurement unit conversion1
Measurement Unit Conversion
  • You can convert between units of measurement
    • within the metric system
    • between the English system and metric system
unit conversion
Unit Conversion
  • Let your units do the work for you by simply memorizing connections between units.
    • Example: How many donuts are in one dozen?
    • We say: “Twelve donuts in a dozen.”
    • Or: 12 donuts = 1 dozen donuts
    • What does any number divided by itself equal?
    • ONE!
unit conversion1
Unit Conversion
  • This fraction is called a unit factor
    • Multiplication by a unit factor does not change the amount - only the unit.
    • Example:How many donuts are in 3.5 dozen?
      • You can probably do this in your head but try it using the Factor-Label Method.
unit conversion rules
Unit Conversion Rules
  • Start with the given information…
  • Then set up your unit factor…
  • See that the original unit cancels out…
  • Then multiply and divide all numbers…
unit conversion practice
Unit Conversion Practice
  • Example:Convert 12 gallons to units of quarts.
unit conversion practice1
Unit Conversion Practice
  • Example:Convert 4 ounces to kilograms.