Introduction to the Metric System

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Introduction to the Metric System . ACS Ms. Grogan. History . Created during French Revolution in 1790 French King overthrown National Assembly of France sets up new government French Academy of Science told to design new system of weights and measures

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### Introduction to the Metric System

ACS

Ms. Grogan

History
• Created during French Revolution
• in 1790
• French King overthrown
• National Assembly of France sets up new government
• French Academy of Science told to design new system of weights and measures
• Lavaiosie appointed to head committee
History
• Called Systeme International d’Unitès,
• or SI - International System of Units
• Revised periodically
• by International Bureau of Weight and Measures
Customary Units of Measurement
• The English System
• a collection of functionally unrelated units
• Difficult to convert from one unit to another
• Ex. 1 ft = 12 inches = 0.33 yard = 1/5280 miles
• Customary Units
• length - inch, foot, yard, mile
• weight/mass - ounce, pound
• volume - teaspoon, cup, quart, gallon
• temperature - degrees Fahrenheit
• time - minutes, hours
Advantages of Using the Metric System
• Universal - used everywhere
• by all scientists to communicate
• by all industrialized nations
• except United States
• U.S. loses billions of dollars in trade
Advantages of Using the Metric System
• Simple to use
• A few base unitsmake up all measurements
• length - meter
• mass - grams
• volume - liters
• temperature – degrees Celsius
• time - seconds
Advantages of Using the Metric System
• There is only one unit of measurement for each type of quantity
• To simplify things, very small and very large numbers are expressed as multiples of the base unit.
• Prefixes are used to represent how much smaller or larger the quantity is compared to the base unit.
• Easy toconvert from one unit to another
• shift decimal point right
• shift decimal point left
Advantages of Using the Metric System
• Same set of prefixes for all units
• Greek - multiples of the base
• kilo -1000 × the base
• hecto - 100 × the base
• deka - 10 × the base
• Latin - fractions of the base
• deci - tenths of the base
• centi -hundredths of the base
• milli - thousandths of the base
• Mnemonic: “Kids Have Dropped Over Dead Converting Metrics.”
Units of Length
• Length - the distance between two points
• standard unit is meter(m)
• long distances are measured in km
• Measured using a meter stick or ruler
Prefixes and Units of Length
• centimeter - cm
• 1 m = 100 cm
• 1 cm = 1/100th m
• millimeter - mm
• 1 m = 1000 mm
• 1 mm = 1/1000th m
• 10 mm = 1 cm
• measures very small lengths
• kilometer - km
• 1 km = 1000 m
• 1 m = 1/1000th km
• measures long distances
Measuring Mass
• Mass - the quantity of matter in an object
• standard unit is gram(g)
• Measured using a digital scale or triple beam balance
Measuring Volume and Capacity
• Volume - the amount of space occupied by an object
• standard unit is liter(L)
• 1 L = 1000 ml = 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3
• Measured using a graduated cylinder
• Capacity - a measure of the volume inside a container
Prefixes and Units of Volume
• Liter - L
• 1 L = 1000 milliliters
• 1 L = 1000 cubic centimeters = 1000 cm3
• milliliter - mL
• measures small volumes
• 1 mL = 1 cubic centimeter
• 1000 mL = 1 Liter
• 1 mL = 1/1000th liter
• kiloliter - kL
• measures large volumes
• 1 kL = 1000 L
Measuring Volume
• Measured with a graduated cylinder
• Determine value of each mark on the scale
• Read scale using the lowest position of the meniscus
• Measure the meniscus at eye level from the center of the meniscus.
• In the case of water and most liquids, the meniscus is concave. Mercury produces a convex meniscus.
Displacement
• Displacement
• Amount of water an object replaces
• Equal to its volume
Volume of a Solid, Irregular Object
• Displacement - amount of water an object replaces
• Procedure
• Place graduate beaker beneath spout
• Fill the overflow canwith water until water begins to spill
• Empty the excess water
• Place object to be measured into the overflow can
• Remove when water stops flowing out of the can
• Measure the displaced water using a graduated cylinder.
Volume of a Solid, Irregular Object
• Displacement
• Calculate the difference between the initial and final volume measurement.
Volume of a Solid, Regular Object
• Volume -length x width x height
• V = 2.8 cm x 3.2 cm x 2.5 cm
• V = 22.4 cm3
• Measured with a ruler
Calculating Density
• Density - a specific property of matter that is related to its mass divided by the volume.
• D=M/V
• the ratio of mass to volume
• used to characterize a substance
• each substance has a unique density
• Units for density include:
• g/mL
• g/cm3
• g/cc
Measuring Time
• Time
• metric unit is second (s)
Measuring Temperature
• Temperature - the degree of “hotness” of an object
• standard unit is celsius (°C)
• measured with a thermometer
Temperature Conversions
• Conversion Between Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin
• Example:
• Convert 75 ºC to ºF
• Convert -10 ºF to ºC
Measurement Unit Conversion
• You can convert between units of measurement
• within the metric system
• between the English system and metric system

### Conversion and the Metric System

ACS

Ms. Grogan

Measurement Unit Conversion
• You can convert between units of measurement
• within the metric system
• between the English system and metric system
Unit Conversion
• Let your units do the work for you by simply memorizing connections between units.
• Example: How many donuts are in one dozen?
• We say: “Twelve donuts in a dozen.”
• Or: 12 donuts = 1 dozen donuts
• What does any number divided by itself equal?
• ONE!
Unit Conversion
• This fraction is called a unit factor
• Multiplication by a unit factor does not change the amount - only the unit.
• Example:How many donuts are in 3.5 dozen?
• You can probably do this in your head but try it using the Factor-Label Method.
Unit Conversion Rules