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ICT Regulation Toolkit Module 4 - Universal Access Module. & regulatory policies on universal access to broadband 8 September 2008, ITU-D Study Group 1, Geneva Andrew Dymond. Objective of presentation. Introduce ICT Regulation Toolkit Module 4 – Universal Access & Service (UAS)

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ict regulation toolkit module 4 universal access module

ICT Regulation Toolkit Module 4 - Universal Access Module

& regulatory policies on universal access to broadband

8 September 2008, ITU-D Study Group 1, Geneva

Andrew Dymond

objective of presentation
Objective of presentation
  • Introduce ICT Regulation Toolkit Module 4 – Universal Access & Service (UAS)
  • Latest trends in UAS, particularly related to broadband services
  • Role of Universal Access and Service Funds (UASFs) and other financial tools
  • Towards regulatory tools & strategies promoting access to broadband services
ict regulation toolkit module 4 universal access service
ICT Regulation Toolkit: Module 4 – Universal Access & Service

Now ready & accessible for general use

  • Overview of the UA concepts, regulation of UAS, approaches to policy, programme design and funding
  • Practice Notes with case examples
  • Online Reference documents

Will be reviewed & revised within the first year


topics covered
Topics covered
  • Universal Access: An overview
  • Regulatory reform & UAS
  • Overview of approaches to UAS
  • UAS Policy
  • Financing UAS
  • UAS Programme Development & Prioritization
  • Competing for UAS Subsidies
  • Technologies for UAS
section highlights chapter 1 universal access an overview
Section highlightsChapter 1 – Universal Access: An Overview

1.1 Concepts of universal access

  • Definitions & objectives

1.2 Current status of universal access & service by regions

  • Telephony & Internet indicators, modes of access, etc.

1.3 Rationale for a universal access policy

  • Socio-economics, drivers, market gaps

1.4 Changing contexts & trends for UAS policy

  • From monopoly tools to UASFs

1.5 International developments

  • WSIS & Millennium Development Goals

1.6 Integration with other national programmes

  • Education, e-Government, Electricity & e-Banking / m-Banking
what are the uas trends direction towards broadband form of policy still emerging
What are the UAS trends?Direction towards broadband …. form of policy still emerging
  • Telephony coverage  US
    • Due to mobile development, the world is getting covered
    • Coverage is both commercially and socially essential - for users & operators
    • UA is a market, US becoming realistic target in many areas
    • Tariff, low cost handsets and user innovation enables near-US
  • UA now defined to include ICT
    • Internet at good speed must be part of the strategy
    • Educational & Community/public access to Internet & ICT is essential
    • e-Governance and related programmes essential as demand builders
  • Broadband access & backbone now a focus
    • Demand and Supply are both important
    • Increasing number of countries with broadband policies
    • ICT and Broadband Policy and UAS hand-in-hand
    • Strategies – incl. pricing, open access, shared infrastructure, special projects
chapter 2 regulatory reform and uas
Chapter 2 – Regulatory Reform and UAS

2.1 Reform first

  • Many regulatory tools can/should precede or accompany UAS policy
  • Liberalization, technology “openness”, license reform
  • Spectrum allocation reform
  • New look at interconnection & tariffs
  • Remove monopoly obligations
  • Timing of UAS policy key

2.2 Impact & importance of competition on UA

  • Coverage, service & markets

2.3 The UA market and how operators are addressing it

  • Sources of revenue & low ARPU strategies – broadband will follow

2.4 Regulatory measures to improve UAS

  • License design & incentives, spectrum & tariffs to promote UAS

2.5 Enabling regulation for broadband

  • Market liberalization & unbundling, gateways & national peering
  • Liberalization of convergence services
key lessons
Key lessons
  • Liberalisation & de-regulation have shown the way
  • Don’t try using tools of liberalisation, such as UASFs, in a non-liberalised market
  • Competitive market can outpace UAS policy and administrative structures
  • Focus UAS measures on where really needed & at the right time
  • Don’t burden industry unnecessarily but create incentive, motivation and collaboration
  • Even broadband will shape up as a competitively driven movement – should not necessarily be “solution driven”
chapter 3 approaches to ua and us
Chapter 3 – Approaches to UA and US

3.1 Traditional incumbent obligations

  • The tools of monopoly era reviewed

3.2 Competing for subsidies from UAS Funds

  • First generation (Latin American) & second generation (African & Asian) Funds
  • The advantages of UASFs

3.3 Non-central government actors in UAS

  • Village phone, municipal networks, Public access telecentres & cyber cafés

3.4 Open access, shared access & ICT backbones

  • The many ways to tap into or develop existing or new national backbones as enabler of UAS

3.5 Other approaches and initiatives promoting UAS

  • Rural cooperatives , small operators, community radio
uasfs their role track record mixed experience even though the trend is strong
UASFs – their role & track recordMixed experience, even though the trend is strong

Key principles & elements of best practice UASFs:

  • Competitive tendering - Output based aid (OBA)
  • Technology neutral, transparent, impartial & fair
  • UASF programmes developed with industry & stakeholder consultation
  • Focus on ongoing sustainability
  • Independent of Government, audited & publicly reported
  • Moving into broadband – UASFs can have an important role
    • Broadband more costly and less sustainable than telephony but most funds have difficulty distributing even 1% of sector revenues
uasf good examples
UASF good examples
  • Uganda’s Rural Communications Development Fund (RCDF)
    • Country covered by mobile signal, public access phones
    • Pioneer towards broadband – all districts have Internet POPs
    • Assistance to schools, public Internet cafes & ICT training
  • Chile Telecoms Development Fund (TDF) & Peru’s FITEL
    • Telephony success has evolved into ICT targets & broadband
    • Two installations of fibre-optic networks in the south of Chile
  • Pakistan’s Universal Service Fund (USF)
    • Country-wide mobile telephony and broadband access programmes
    • 42% of operator levies distributed or committed by 2008
  • Mongolia’s Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF)
    • Wireless voice service for all 330 rural districts
    • Broadband Internet POPs and public access Internet centres under implementation
what role can uasfs play in broadband access
What role can UASFs play in broadband access?
  • Some UASFs now financing backbone & broadband
    • Chilean fund has financed two backbone extensions & being re-focused under new Information Society Access Policy
    • Sri Lanka, India & others moving in broadband direction
  • Fund broadband access pilots & roll-outs
    • Competitive tendering for technology neutral solutions
    • Test uncertainties, e.g. demand in rural areas, alternative open access solutions
  • Mandate infrastructure sharing natural to subsidies
    • Winning bidders required to build capacity and offer leased lines at commercial rates (e.g., Nigeria, Mongolia)
chapter 4 uas policy
Chapter 4 – UAS Policy

4.1 Universal access & service policy framework

  • Scope, relationship to National Broadband Policy, separate or integrated, institutional framework, basic policy structure

4.2 Universal access & service policy development

  • Sector review & Market Analysis
  • Policy formulation
  • Priority of regulatory measures
  • Financial analysis – what is affordable?
  • Economic appraisal of policy options
  • Consultation

4.3 Legal modifications and regulations

  • Amendments & detailed regulations
relationship of uas to broadband
Relationship of UAS to Broadband

Broadband policy

Demand stimulation & supply strategy

e-government projects

price reduction measures

create investment & more opportunity for economic delivery

Internet services

UAS policy

Regional access,

spread and growth of

Internet services creates demand for


Broadband facilities

Converging into one policy?

chapter 5 financial uas
Chapter 5 – Financial UAS

5.1 General trends in ICT development & UAS finance

  • The range of financial instruments available – from regulatory reform and UASFs to targeted fiscal measures, demand support & capacity building through e-Governance, sector budgets, etc.

5.2 Universal Access and Service Funds

  • Sources of funds, industry levy principles, appropriate level

5.3 Institutional issues: managing & organizing a UASF

  • Targeting commercial viability
  • Managing the UASF
  • Avoiding pitfalls
  • Evaluation & reappraisal of UASF programmes
  • NGN and the future of UASFs

5.4 Other approaches to UAS funding

  • Primarily consideration of PPP issues
chapter 6 programme development prioritization
Chapter 6 – Programme Development& Prioritization

6.1 ICT Sector Analysis and Assessing Demand

  • Sector Review, household expenditures, incoming revenue, Internet, field demand surveys

6.2 Modeling costs, viability & subsidy analysis

  • Fundamental estimation of the financial gaps to attract investment

6.3 Economic impact of UAS projects

  • Telephony
  • Broadband ICT impact analysis – New work emerging

6.4 Prioritization of UAS projects

  • Qualitative, quantitative, financial ranking based on subsidy requirement, subsidy cost per beneficiary
chapter 7 competing for uas subsidies a how to on uasf tender design management
Chapter 7 – Competing for UAS SubsidiesA “how to” on UASF tender design & management

7.1 Design of the UAS bidding strategy

  • UAS competitor eligibility
  • The competition bidding lots
  • The bidding process & documentation
  • Large & small project processes

7.2 Bidding & subsidy distribution process

  • Publicizing tenders
  • Bidder meetings
  • Bid evaluation & award

7.3 Inspection, payment, monitoring & evaluation

  • Technical audit, reporting
  • Review & evaluation
chapter 8 technologies for uas
Chapter 8 – Technologies for UAS

8.1 Technology and service neutrality

  • Context of current trends and the limits of neutrality

8.2 Technology choices

  • Review of the main options

8.3 Broadband & the implications of using IP

  • NGNs
  • Contribution to UASFs
  • Issues related to substitution for voice and broadcasting
  • Content issues

8.4 Terminals

  • Phones, PDAs & computers

8.5 Relationship with the environment

  • Re-use, recycling, alternative power sources
  • The contribution of ICTs
should policy dictate technology
Should policy dictate technology?
  • Broadband motivation is causing policy makers & regulators to focus on fibre & WiMAX
  • Suggest operators still the best ones to decide
    • Role of regulation is to provide vision & incentives
    • Competitive approach to finance & ownership model
  • Don’t discount the role of the competitive market
    • Mobile operators ready for the challenge
    • Open access as a tool to leverage the commercial sector’s energy
thank you

Thank you