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Gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing. Replication. DNA is the genetic material within the nucleus. DNA. The process of replication creates new copies of DNA. Transcription. RNA. The process of transcription creates an RNA using DNA information. Nucleus. Translation. Protein.

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Presentation Transcript
gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis

DNA sequencing

central dogma

Replication

DNA is the genetic material

within the nucleus.

DNA

The process of replication

creates new copies of DNA.

Transcription

RNA

The process of transcription

creates an RNA using

DNA information.

Nucleus

Translation

Protein

The process of translation

creates a protein using

RNA information.

Cytoplasm

Central Dogma
slide6

Three Components of DNA Structure

base: thymine

(pyrimidine)

monophosphate

sugar: 2’-deoxyribose

5’

4’

1’

2’

3’

(5’ to 3’)

3’ linkage

base:adenine

(purine)

5’ linkage

no 2’-hydroxyl

purines used in base pairs dna
Purines used in Base Pairs, DNA

Fused 5 and 6 member rings

dna base pairing
DNA Base Pairing

A-T pairing

2 H-Bonds

G-C pairing

3 H-bonds

transcription

3’

G

U

C

A

U

U

C

G

G

5’

RNA

Transcription
  • The new RNA molecule is formed by incorporating
  • nucleotides that are complementary to the template strand.

DNA

DNA coding strand

5’

G

T

C

A

T

T

C

G

G

3’

3’

C

A

G

T

A

A

G

C

C

5’

  • DNA template strand
slide16

# of strands

kind of sugar

bases used

slide17

RNA Polymerase is the Enzyme that Catalyzes Transcription of DNA Information to RNA

DNA (Blue)

Newly Synthesized RNA (Red)

Bridge Helix Moves DNA through Polymerase during RNA Synthesis (Green)

Active Site Metal (Pink)

transcription1

3’

G

U

C

A

U

U

C

G

G

5’

RNA

Transcription
  • The new RNA molecule is formed by incorporating
  • nucleotides that are complementary to the template strand.

DNA

DNA coding strand

5’

G

T

C

A

T

T

C

G

G

3’

3’

C

A

G

T

A

A

G

C

C

5’

  • DNA template strand
translation

DNA

template

strand

DNA

T

T

C

A

G

T

C

A

G

Transcription

A

A

G

U

C

A

G

U

C

Messenger

RNA

mRNA

Codon

Codon

Codon

Translation

Polypeptide

(amino acid

sequence)

Protein

Lysine

Serine

Valine

Translation
  • The process of reading the RNA sequence of an mRNA and creating the amino acid sequence of a protein is called translation.
genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid sequences
Genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid sequences
  • The “words” of the DNA “language” are triplets of bases called codons
    • 3 bases or nucleotides make one codon
    • Each codon specifies an amino acid
    • The codons in a gene specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
the genetic code is the rosetta stone of life
The genetic code is the Rosetta stone of life
  • Virtually all organisms share the same genetic code
  • All organisms use the same 20 aa
  • Each codon specifies a particular aa

Figure 10.8A

slide23
Tryptophan and Methionine have only 1 codon each
  • All the rest have more than one
  • AUG has a dual function
  • 3 stop codons that code for termination of protein synthesis
  • Redundancy in the code but no ambiguity

Figure 10.8A

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