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The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview. Lorin Anderson University of South Carolina. A Fundamental Truth. We don’t see the world as it is; we see the world through the lens through which we look at it. Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework.

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lorin anderson university of south carolina

The Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview

Lorin Anderson

University of South Carolina

a fundamental truth

A Fundamental Truth

We don’t see the world as it is; we see the world through the lens through which we look at it.

bloom s taxonomy as a framework
Bloom’s Taxonomy as a Framework

A taxonomy of educational objectives “could do much to

bring order out of chaos in the field of education. It could

furnish the conceptual framework around which our

descriptions of educational programs and experiences

could be oriented. It could furnish a framework for the

development of educational theories and research. It could

furnish the scheme needed for training our teachers and for

orienting them to the varied possibilities of education”

(Bloom, 1949)

who were the taxonomists
Who were the taxonomists?
  • Post World War II
  • Students received course credit by passing the examinations (credit-by-examination)
  • Quite obviously, the exams had to be based on course objectives (validity) and of sufficient length to be reliable.
  • University Examiners
  • Responsible for designing or helping to design end-of-course examinations
they needed a set of categories that cut across subject areas
They Needed a Set of Categories that Cut-Across Subject Areas

“Although the objectives … may be specified in an almost unlimited number of ways, the student behaviors involved in these objectives can be represented by a relatively small number of classes. Therefore, the taxonomy is designed to be a classification of the student behaviors which represent the intended outcomes of the educational process” (p. 18).

slide7

Evaluation

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

The Original “Bloom’s Taxonomy

The Original “Bloom’s Taxonomy

The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy

without the lens
Without the Lens

The student will recall the names of

the parts of a flower.

with the lens
With the Lens

The student will recall the names of

the parts of a flower.

This is a knowledge objective.

slide10

Objectives were used to form categories; then categories were used to classify objectives.80 % of the objectives fell into the Knowledge category

the revision
The Revision
  • Began in November 1996
  • Led by David Krathwohl
  • Involved cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists, teacher educators, and measurement and assessment specialists.
  • Group met twice a year for four years.
  • Draft completed in 2000; text published in 2001.
  • Two books – soft cover for teachers and other “practitioners” and hard cover for academicians.
slide12

In education, objectives are statements of what we want students to learn as a result of the instruction we provide. Standards are simply mandated objectives.

the common format of objectives
The Common Format of Objectives

Subject Verb Object

S V O

the subject is the learner or the student

The SUBJECT is the Learner or the Student.

The student (will)

The student (should)

The students (might)

Quite often, the subject is implicit or understood.

slide15

The verbs provide clues as to the cognitive process category intended by the person or persons writing the standard. Adopted from the original Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, there are six cognitive process categories.

bloom revised bloom
Bloom Revised Bloom
  • Create
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluate
  • Synthesis
  • Analyze
  • Analysis
  • Apply
  • Application
  • Understand
  • Comprehension
  • Knowledge
  • Remember
slide17

Each of the six cognitive process categories was divided into specific cognitive processes. Nineteen (19) specific cognitive processes were identified.

cognitive processes
Remember

Understand

Recognizing

Recalling

Interpreting

Exemplifying

Classifying

Summarizing

Inferring

Comparing

Explaining

Cognitive Processes
cognitive processes continued
Apply

Analyze

Evaluate

Create

Executing

Implementing

Differentiating

Organizing

Attributing

Checking

Critiquing

Generating

Planning

Producing

Cognitive Processes (continued)
slide20

THE TAXONOMY TABLE

COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION

1.

REMEMBER

Recognizing

Recalling

2.

UNDERSTAND

Interpreting

Exemplifying

Classifying

Summarizing

Inferring

Comparing

Explaining

3.

APPLY

Executing

Implementing

4.

ANALYZE

Differentiating

Organizing

Attributing

5.

EVALUATE

Checking

Critiquing

6.

CREATE

Generating

Planning

Producing

slide21

Unlike the verbs, the objects of the standards are subject-specific (e.g., math, science, social studies). The objects specify the CONTENT of the standard. For several reasons, CONTENT was replaced by KNOWLEDGE.

what are differences between content and knowledge
What are Differences Between Content and Knowledge?
  • Content is subject-matter specific. If you focused on content, then, you would need as many taxonomies as there are subject matters (e.g., one for science, one for history, etc.).
  • Content exists outside the student. A major problem, then, is how to get the content inside the student. When content gets inside the student, it becomes knowledge. This transformation of content to knowledge takes place through the cognitive processes used by the student.
four types of knowledge
Four Types of Knowledge
  • Factual Knowledge
  • Conceptual Knowledge
  • Procedural Knowledge
  • Metacognitive Knowledge
slide24

HOT ARTICHOKE DIP (Serves 10 to 14)

  • 2 14-oz cans artichoke hearts
  • 16 oz. mayonnaise
  • 1 c. grated Parmesan cheese
  • Garlic salt (optional)
  • ====================================
  • Drain artichoke hearts.
  • Mash artichokes with fork.
  • Mix with mayonnaise, cheese, and garlic salt.
  • Bake at 350 degrees for 15 minutes or until cheese is melted.
  • Serve with crackers or party rye.
slide25

THE TAXONOMY TABLE

COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION

KNOWLEDGE

DIMENSION

1.

REMEMBER

Recognizing

Recalling

2.

UNDERSTAND

Interpreting

Exemplifying

Classifying

Summarizing

Inferring

Comparing

Explaining

3.

APPLY

Executing

Implementing

4.

ANALYZE

Differentiating

Organizing

Attributing

5.

EVALUATE

Checking

Critiquing

6.

CREATE

Generating

Planning

Producing

FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE

CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE

PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE

METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE

slide26

THE TAXONOMY TABLE

1.

REMEMBER

Recognizing

Recalling

2.

UNDERSTAND

Interpreting

Exemplifying

Classifying

Summarizing

Inferring

Comparing

Explaining

3.

APPLY

Executing

Implementing

4.

ANALYZE

Differentiating

Organizing

Attributing

5.

EVALUATE

Checking

Critiquing

6.

CREATE

Generating

Planning

Producing

A. Factual Knowledge

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

B. Conceptual Knowledge

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

C. Procedural

Knowledge

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

D. Metacognitive

Knowledge

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

slide28

Explain the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century, including NATO, the UN, and OPEC

slide29

Verb = Explain

Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century

including NATO, the UN, and OPEC

[Extraneous information]

slide30

Verb = Explain = Understand

Object = the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the 20th Century = Conceptual Knowledge

slide31

Summarize the provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities

verb summarize
Verb = Summarize

Object = Provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution

Including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities [Extraneous information]

verb summarize understand
Verb = Summarize = Understand

Object = Provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution = Factual Knowledge

slide34

THE TAXONOMY TABLE

COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION

KNOWLEDGE

DIMENSION

1.

REMEMBER

Recognizing

Recalling

2.

UNDERSTAND

Interpreting

Exemplifying

Classifying

Summarizing

Inferring

Comparing

Explaining

3.

APPLY

Executing

Implementing

4.

ANALYZE

Differentiating

Organizing

Attributing

5.

EVALUATE

Checking

Critiquing

6.

CREATE

Generating

Planning

Producing

FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE

Standard 2

CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE

Standard 1

PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE

METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE

slide35

The SVO format of standards in combination with the two-dimensional structure of the Taxonomy Table allows us to classify standards so we better understand their intent and meaning in terms of student learning.

additional benefits
Additional Benefits
  • Increase curriculum alignment
  • Improve validity of assessments
  • Improve quality of instruction
curriculum alignment
Curriculum Alignment

Curriculum Alignment

Assessments

Objectives

Instructional Activities/ Materials

why is alignment important
Why is Alignment Important?
  • Increases validity of assessment
  • Increases students’ opportunity to learn
  • Provides more accurate estimates of teaching effectiveness
  • Permits better instructional decisions to be made
traditional alignment
Traditional Alignment
  • What content is included in the objective?
  • What content is included on the assessment(s)?
  • Is the content included in the objective and/or on the assessment included in the instructional materials?
  • If the content is the same, there is a high level of alignment.
slide40

Objectives

ALIGNMENT

USING THE

TAXONOMY

TABLE

Assessments

Instructional Activities

slide41

THE ANATOMY OF AN ASSESSMENT TASK

INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL

(1) Written (2) Pictorial (3) Realia

STEM

(1) Question (2) Incomplete Statement (3) Directive

RESPONSE

(1) Short-Answer (2) Extended Response

* Supply (Fill in the blank) * Written

* Select (Multiple-choice, * Performance

Matching, True-False)

remember factual knowledge
Remember Factual Knowledge
  • No Introductory Material
  • Stem as Question or Incomplete Statement
  • Supply (Recall) or Select (Recognize) Format
apply procedural knowledge
Apply Procedural Knowledge
  • Introductory Material is Present
  • Stem as Directive
  • Extended Response Format
slide44

Teaching Students to "Remember Factual Knowledge"

  • Focus students’ attention on important facts and terms, using, among other things, study guides, colors, and verbal markers.
  • 2. Structure the information to be remembered (e.g., outlines, diagrams, pictures).
  • Use repetition, incorporating songs and rhythmic activities (e.g., clapping, chanting, cheering).
  • Use mnemonic devices & acronyms; teach memory strategies (e.g., rehearsal, elaboration, making connections with familiar places and things).
  • 5. Use distributed practice.
slide45

Teaching Students to "Understand Conceptual Knowledge“

1. Emphasize defining features or key characteristics; ask "what makes X, X?"

2. Give examples, non-examples, and “near” examples.

3. Teach concepts in relation to one another; show connections and relationships using visual representations and graphic organizers.

4. Use metaphors and similes.

5. Use “hands-on” activities and manipulatives; build models.

why the revised taxonomy
Why the Revised Taxonomy?
  • Historical link (1949 to the present)
  • Two dimensions match the structure of all objectives: subject-verb-object.
  • Complete “crossing” of rows with columns makes knowledge and cognitive processes equally important
  • The use of verbs is critical since the verbs represent the cognitive processes that students use on or with the content so that learning occurs