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Enhancing students’ language proficiency & thinking skills through integrative language use at KS2. LLSS 12 December 2013. Programme run-down. Part I. Do we use different language skills in our daily lives?. Do you …?. Listening  Writing. Reading  Writing.

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enhancing students language proficiency thinking skills through integrative language use at ks2

Enhancing students’ language proficiency & thinking skills through integrative language use at KS2

LLSS

12 December 2013

do you
Do you …?

Listening  Writing

Reading  Writing

Listening  Speaking  Writing

Listening  Speaking

Listening  Speaking

Reading  Writing  Speaking

Write down notes of what the presenters say in a lecture or a workshop

Make summaries or jot down some quotes when reading a reference book

Help take phone messages

Chat about weather

Do a presentation on a particular topic

slide7
In reality, it is rare for language skills to be used in isolation. Hinkel (2010)

There are many situations in which we use more than one language skill in an authentic environment.

slide8

Listening

Reading

Skills cannot be taught isolated

Integrative language use

Writing

Speaking

  • in a coherent way with language skills practiced together.
slide10
DSE (Paper 3)

Integrated listening/reading and writing tasks of different levels of difficulty based on the same theme

Why should we teach in ways that promote the integrative use of language?

slide13

active, engaging and meaningful learning activities

opportunities to practise the integrative use of language

English Language Education

Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 – Secondary 3)

slide14

What is

integrative language use?

slide15

Receptive skills:

Reading & Listening

Productive skills:

Speaking & Writing

  • Language forms
  • Communicative functions
  • Three strands:
  • Interpersonal
  • Knowledge
  • Experience
  • Language Development strategies
  • thinking skills
  • reference skills
  • library skills
  • information skills…

Integrative language use

Integrative language use is more than

integrating four language skills

Source: ELCG 2004, p.96

slide16

Integrated skills = all four language skills?

  • ‘(the teaching of integrated skills) involves the teaching of the language skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking in conjunction with each other...’

(Richards, Platt and Weber,1985)

slide17

Involve skills in the

same language medium

input and modelling

Integrated skills

spoken

medium

Input

Output

Listening

(receptive skill)

speaking

(productive skill)

slide18

input and modelling

Integrated skills

written

medium

Output

Input

Reading

(receptive skill)

writing

(productive skill)

slide19

Integrated skills

WRITTEN

READING  WRITING

SPOKEN

LISTENING  SPEAKING

OR

From 1 receptive skill to 1 productive skill

+

SPOKEN

LISTENING  SPEAKING

WRITTEN

READING  WRITING

All 4 language skills

slide20

Critical thinking

Problem solving

Provide, use, interpret and present simple information

Examples of

expected achievements

of learners

Recognise and and solve problems

Express freely ideas, views or feelings

Make predictions, inferences and evaluative comments

Exercise their creative imagination and independent judgement

Find out, organise and classify information

Creativity

20

20

Source: ELCG 2002, p.46, 49, 59

major principles in curriculum planning
Major principles in curriculum planning

Why is integrative language use important?

learner-centred

Balanced coverage

Fundamental intertwining ways of learning and using language

Communicative

purposes

Integrative use of English

Source: ELCG 2004, p.93

slide23

Why is integrative language use important?

Integrative use of English

‘Language use in real life situations is integrative and creative.’

‘… to use English to respond and

give expression to real and imaginative experience.’

Source: ELCG 2002, p.96-97

activity analysing a unit with reference to how it promotes the integrative use of language
Activity: Analysing a unit with reference to how it promotes theintegrative use of language

Source: Primary Longman Elect 6B

  • Main reading text (P.28-29)
  • story of Noah of the future
  • text type: play
  • 2. Post-reading (P.30)
  • text features of a play: setting, characters & events

Topic: Animals in danger (Unit 4)

slide25

Activity: Analysing a unit with reference to how it promotes theintegrative use of language

  • 3. Target vocabulary (P.31)
  • names of endangered animals
  • actions that harm animals
  • effects on endangered animals

4. Language focus (P.31)

- use of connectives to express the cause-and-effect relationship

  • Appropriate vocabulary & language structures to help students give responses and express in the context
slide26

Activity: Analysing a unit with reference to how it promotes theintegrative use of language

  • 5. Practice 1 & 2 (p.32-33)
  • use the target language structures for classroom language practice
  • (speaking and writing tasks)

6. Main task (p.34-35)

- an article asking people to be more dolphin-friendly for the school newsletter

activity 1 does this unit involve integrative language use
Activity 1:Does this unit involve integrative language use?
  • Read the task and discuss the following
  • questions:
  • What language skills does this unit involve? (p.28-35)
  • Does the main reading text (p.28-29) providemodellingfor studentsto produce an article as the writing output (p.34-35)? How?

Group discussion

slide28

Read the task and discuss the

following questions:

3. Does the practice part (p.32-33) provideinput for students to write about the problems of dolphinsin the main task (p.34-35)? How?

4. Does the practice part (p.32-33) provide modelling for students to use the language structures in the main task (p.34-35)? How?

5. What skills and knowledge learnt in the unit can be applied in real-life situations?

Group discussion

slide29

Q1. Whatlanguage skills does this unit involve?

reading

All four language skills

reading

reading & speaking (listening?)

Integrative language use?

reading & writing

reading & writing

slide30

Q2. Does the main reading text provide modelling for students to produce an article as the writing output?

Text type of reading text (P.28-29): play

Main task (P.34-35):Write an article asking people to be more dolphin-friendly for the school newsletter.

 Text type: article

Q2. No modellingon text type

 Q2. Teacher’s support required

(e.g. text features & style)

slide31

Q3. Does the practice part provide input for students to write about the problems of the dolphins in the main task?

Input given in Practice 1 and 2 (P.32-33): problems faced by different kinds of endangered animals, e.g. reef fish, whales, sharks…

(no input on problems faced by dolphins)

However, the main task (P.34-35)  students need to write aboutthe problems dolphins are facing

Vocabulary input used for writing is only found in main task; but not in other parts such as reading passage (P.28-29) and practices (P.32-33)

Q3. No contextually linked- vocabulary input; teacher’s support required

slide32

input and modelling ?

Writing task:

-Write an article about problems faced by dolphins

Input (P.28-29, 32-33)

-Story, poster, information sheets

-Problems faced by other endangered animals

Output

Input

writing

(productive skill)

Reading

(receptive skill)

Q1. Reading and writing skills are involved butteacher’s support required

slide33

Q4. Does the practice part provide modelling for students to use the language structures in the main task?

Practice on expressing the cause-and-effect relationship (using ‘unless’ and ‘therefore’) can be found in the speaking and writing tasks in Practice 1 & 2 (P.32-33).

Students are able to write about the problems dolphins are facing using the language structures describing thecause-and-effect relationship.

Q4. Languagestructures are provided as modelling to prepare students for the writing task

slide34

Q5. What skills and knowledge learnt in the unit can beapplied in real-life situations?

  • Vocabulary
  • names of endangered animals
  • actions that harm animals
  • effects on endangered animals

Language structures

- to express the cause-and-effect relationship

  • Thinking skills
  • presenting and organising information
  • expressing views
slide35

Does this unit involve integrative language use?

No contextually linked- vocabulary input

 Opportunities for students to apply knowledge and skills in real-life situations

No modellingon

text type

 Input to equip

students with language structures required tocommunicate in the context

  • Skills developed:
  • Language skills: reading, listening, speaking & writing

(from receptive skills  productive skills?)

  • Critical thinking: Provide, use, interpret and present simple information
  • Problem solving: Find out, organise and classify information

Creativity:?

teacher’s support required

slide36

Some principles for integrative langauge use

Fromclassroom language practice to real-world uses

(e.g. knowledge and skills)

Nunan (1989)

Language input materialsare organisedthematically, with consistency and cohesiveness

(e.g. design and arrangements of tasks under the context)

Providing input and modelling for productive skills

(e.g. vocabulary & language structures input for writing task)

Hinkel (2010)

Source: Hinkel, E. (2010). Integrating the four skills: Current and historical perspectives. In R.B. Kaplan (Ed.), Oxford Handbook in Applied Linguistics, (pp. 110-126). 2nd ed. Oxford University Press.

slide37

Part II

School Case 1

arrangement of the tasks

Arrangement of the tasks

The tasks designed are adapted from New Magic 4A Unit 6 Christmas Party.

slide40

1. Introduce the context

Christmas is coming. We are going to plan for a class party to celebrate Christmas and then write a letter to a friend to tell him/her about the party.

2. Prepare a Christmasparty planner

3. Design party games

4. Choose party food

5. Write a letter to a friend to tell him/her about the party.

1 introduce the context and explain the main task
1. Introduce the context and explain the main task

Situation

Christmas is coming. We are going to plan for a class party to celebrate Christmas and then write a letter to a friend to tell him/her about the party.

Language skills: Reading

Thinking skills:

Problem solving

2 prepare a christmas party planner
2. Prepare a Christmas party planner

Read an email about how Harry and his friends prepare for their Christmas party. (New Magic 4A p.54)

2 prepare a christmas party planner1
2. Prepare a Christmas party planner

Introduce vocabulary related to Christmas celebration (New Magic 4A p.55)

2 prepare a christmas party planner2
2. Prepare a Christmas party planner

Listen to what Harry did at his Christmas party. (New Magic 4A p.57)

2 prepare a christmas party planner3
2. Prepare a Christmas party planner

Listen to what Harry did at his Christmas party and fill in the blanks with the correct adverbs. (New Magic 4A p.57)

2 prepare a christmas party planner4
2. Prepare a Christmas party planner

Read Harry’s planner for his Christmas party. (New Magic 4A p.58)

2 prepare a christmas party planner5
2. Prepare a Christmas party planner
  • Brainstorm the activities that people do at a Christmas party.
christmas party planner
ChristmasPartyPlanner

2. Prepare a Christmas party planner

2 design a christmas party planner
2. Design a Christmas party planner
  • Read Harry’s email about the preparation for a Christmas party
  • Listen to Harry’s online diary about what he did at the Christmas party
  • Read Harry’s plan for the Christmas party
  • Discuss and design a Christmas party planner

Language skills: reading, listening, speaking

Thinking skills:

Problem solving, critical thinking

slide50

1. Introduce the context

Christmas is coming. We are going to plan for a class party to celebrate Christmas and then write a letter to a friend to tell him/her about the party.

2. Prepare a Christmasparty planner

3. Design party games

4. Choose party food

5. Write a letter to a friend to tell him/her about the party.

3 design party games
3. Design party games

Watch videos about party games and complete the instructions.

game 1
Game 1

What do you need

to find out?

What is the name

of the game?

3 design party games1
3. Design party games

Teach students the features of instructions.

3 design party games2
3. Design party games

Introduce the thinking tool ‘SCAMPER’ to help students create a new game for the party.

3 design party games3
3. Design party games

Do shared writing with students.

Write a new party game in groups.

3 design party games4
3. Design party games

Invite students to present the games.

3 design party games5
3. Design party games

Students do peer and self evaluation.

Vote for the games they like.

3 design party games6
3.Design party games
  • Watch videos about two party games
  • Write a party games using the tool ‘SCAMPER’
  • Present the party games designed
  • Do peer and self evaluation about the presentation and vote for the games for the Christmas party

Language skills: listening, reading, speaking, writing

Thinking skills:

Problem solving, critical thinking, creativity

slide60

1. Introduce the context

Christmas is coming. We are going to plan for a class party to celebrate Christmas and then write a letter to a friend to tell him/her about the party.

2. Prepare a Christmasparty planner

3. Design party games

4. Choose party food

5. Write a letter to a friend to tell him/her about the party.

4 choose the food for the christmas party
4. Choose the food for the Christmas party

Read food reviews of some party food.

4 choose the food for the christmas party1
4. Choose the food for the Christmas party

Read food reviews of some party food.

slide63

4. Choose the food for the Christmas party

  • Look for information and find out the writer’s attitude.
4 choose the food for the christmas party2
4. Choose the food for the Christmas party

Introduce more party food.

  • Christmas pudding
  • Turkey
  • Salad
  • Pudding
  • Sushi
  • Pizza
  • Crisps
  • Sausages,
  • Chicken wings
4 choose the food for the christmas party3
4. Choose the food for the Christmas party

Use ‘Value Grid’ to help students choose the food for the party.

  • Steps:
  • List the ideas in the first column.
  • List the things to consider in the first row.
  • Fill in the grid.
  • Compare the pros and cons of all ideas.
  • Choose the best idea.
4 choose the food for the christmas party4
4. Choose the food for the Christmas party

Introduce the language for discussion.

Demonstrate how to discuss.

hamburger vs nachos
Hamburger VS Nachos

A: Let’s choose hamburgers! I think they are more tasty than Nachos.

B: I don’t think that’s a good idea! Hamburgers are difficult to make.

A: Well, we can buy them at McDonald’s. There’s a McDonald’s near our school.

B: They are not cheap. I think Nachos are better party food. We can share Nachos but we can’t share hamburgers. Shall we choose Nachos? Let’s vote. If you like Nachos, raise your hands….

If voting doesn’t work, group leaders should make the final decision.

sandwiches vs ice cream
Sandwiches VS Ice Cream

A: Let’s chooseIce Cream! It got 11 scores!

B: I don’t think that’s a good idea. Ice Cream is tasty but Ice Cream can’t sit on the table for long.

A: Ice Cream is my favourite food…

B: I know but it’s not good for our party. We have no fridge. Why don’t we trySandwiches? A, is it okay if we choose sandwiches?

A: Okay, let’s have sandwiches for the party.

Your group chooses an item that you hate!

Relax! There are always other dishes!

4 choose party food
4.Choose party food.
  • Read food review about party food and find out the attitudes of writers.
  • Use a ‘value grid’ as the basis for discussion to choose party food.
  • Present the food students would like to choose.

Language skills: reading, listening, speaking

Thinking skills:

Problem solving, critical thinking

slide71

1. Introduce the context

Christmas is coming. We are going to plan for a class party to celebrate Christmas and then write a letter to a friend to tell him/her about the party.

2. Prepare a Christmasparty planner

3. Design party games

4. Choose party food

5. Write a letter to a friend to tell him/her about the party.

5 write a letter to harry to tell him about the christmas party
5. Write a letter to Harry to tell him about the Christmas party

Recall what was done at the Christmas party.

Show a sample letter to show the features of a letter.

5 write a letter to harry to tell him about the christmas party1
5. Write a letter to Harry to tell him about the Christmas party

Use a graphic organiser to help students brainstorm and organise ideas.

5 write a letter to harry to tell him about the christmas party2
5. Write a letter to Harry to tell him about the Christmas party

Students write a letter to Harry to tell him about the Christmas party.

slide75

Appropriate

text features

Use connectives

to show the sequence

of activities

Use the past tense to

talk about a past event

Use adverbs to

describe actions

5 write a letter to a friend about the christmas party
5. Write a letter to a friend about the Christmas party.
  • Read an example of a friendly letter about a Christmas party.
  • Use graphic organiser to organise ideas.
  • Write the letter.

Language skills: reading, writing

Thinking skills:

Problem solving, critical thinking

language forms communicative functions
Language forms/ Communicative functions

To name food items for parties

To name some activities for celebrating Christmas

To use connectives to talk about sequence

To use adverbs to describe actions

To use imperatives to write instructions or rules

To use the simple past tense to talk about a past event

slide80

Part II

School Case 2

slide82

p.49

p.50

Reading

  • Ss are to read:
  • a story about a theft that happened in a school
  • statements of 3 suspects
slide83

Key Words

Comprehension Exercise

p.51

Key Structures

p.50

p.51

Thinking

Reading

Vocabulary related to crime:

  • nouns (people)
  • verbs (actions)

Ss have to complete a police officer’s report (successful completion means they understand what they read)

Use of “when” to link a shorter action (past tense) and a longer action (past continuous tense) in the past

slide84

Pre-task Activity A

Provision of

  • A car accident happened near Tim’s building
  • A police officer is asking Tim and his
  • neighbours about it
  • Finish what they say

Grammar

Practice

Did you see the accident?

Speaking

Yes, I did.

a context

What were you doing at the time of the accident?

I was walking the dog.

p.52

Give Ss practice mainly on use of past continuous tense

slide85

Pre-task Activity B

Provision of

  • Tim went to the police station to give a
  • statement about the accident
  • There were a lot of people giving statements
  • about other incidents
  • Finish what they say

Grammar

Practice

Speaking

What happened?

a context

I was waiting for my daughter when a car knocked down a woman.

p.53

Give Ss practice on use of past tense and past continuous tense

slide86

• What: Peter Law’s gold watch being stolen

• Who: Sally the detective + 3 suspects

Task: Play a detective game and find out who the thief is

Reading

Speaking

Listening

Writing

???

p.54

p.55

Thinking

slide87

Any integrative use of language

if T follows what the book provides?

Knowledge strand

(passage: stole, theft)

Language forms

slide88

Language forms & Communicative functions

(past continuous tense)

Language forms & Communicative functions

(past tense + when + past continuous tense)

slide89

Evaluation of the integrative language use in this unit

Quite a good unit

Receptive skills:

Reading & Listening

Productive skills:

Speaking & Writing

Integrative language use

  • Language forms
  • Communicative functions
  • Three strands:
  • Interpersonal
  • Knowledge
  • Experience
  • Language Development strategies
  • thinking skills
  • reference skills
  • information skills

how to make improvement

Reading (locating information)

How to make improvement
  • Type of crime: ___________________________
  • Where did it happen: ______________________
  • Suspect: _______________________________
  • Report:
  • He said he watched ____________________
  • He said he got home at _________________
  • He telephoned _______ and told him ______

____________________________________

Ss are required to complete a police officer’s report

Reading (integrating & synthesizing information)

Problem-solving & Critical thinking

Improve the comprehension exercise

by setting more Wh-questions

slide91

Instead of asking Ss to read, have them listen to the three statements

Replace Reading with Listening

can anything be done for writing
Can anything be done for Writing?

I think Max Wong was the thief. He told lies. It was Sunday. There was no mail for him to read that day. He was in the bedroom when the phone rang.

p.55

Limitations of the writing task in the book

  • Language
  • Involve past tense, but not past continuous tense
  • No chance to recycle many of the vocab items

Content

- Very much governed by what’s given in the case

Thinking

- Any creativity?

what do you think of this writing task

Situation

You are a police officer. You are to write a police report for one of the following events that happened this week.

Part I

  •  Theft
  • Robbery
  • Burglary
  •  Pickpocketing
  • Accident
  • Other: _________
What do you think of this writing task?
slide94

Who

When

Event:

__________________

What happened

Where

Part II

slide95

Part III.Write the draft

  • <1st paragraph>
  • Give background information about the event:
  • what the event was
  • where it happened
  • when it happened
  • who was involved
  • <2nd paragraph>
  • Give details of what happened using:
  •  the past tense (for shorter actions)
  •  the past continuous tense (for longer actions)
  •  “when” to join up the shorter and longer actions

Pre-task Activities A & B

slide96

Part IV.Revise the draft

 Work in pairs or in groups.

 Show your draft report to your partner or group members to read and give comments.

 Write your final report.

slide97

I was in Mong Kok at 2 pm on 12 December 2013. When I was walking along Sai Yeung Choi Street, I saw a man running out of a bank.

slide100

After the surgery

Receptive skills:

Reading & Listening

Productive skills:

Speaking & Writing



Integrative language use

  • Language forms
  • Communicative functions

  • Three strands:
  • Interpersonal
  • Knowledge
  • Experience

  • Language Development strategies
  • thinking skills
  • reference skills
  • information skills

Problem-solving + Critical thinking + Creativity

Before the surgery

Problem-solving+ Critical thinking

hands on practice
Hands-on practice
  • Work in groups.
  • Improve the design of the unit so as to create opportunities to practise the integrative use of language.
  • Write the teaching steps in brief on handout 5.
  • Indicate what language skills are involved in each step.
  • Identify a possible activity to develop students’ thinking skills.
  • Prepare to present your ideas.
improve the design of a unit in a local textbook
Improve the design of a unit in a local textbook
  • Level: P6
  • Module: Caring for others
  • Unit: Taking care of the Earth  Animals in danger
at the beginning of the workshop
At the beginning of the workshop…
  • Language skills involved:
  • Reading: the play of Noah, posters of the ways to save the wildlife, information sheets about endangered animals
  • Listening & Speaking: discussing about ways to save the wildlife
  • Writing: an article about saving the dolphins
  • Thinking skills involved:
  • Problem solving: suggesting solutions to save the wildlife
things to improve
Things to improve…
  • No modelling of text type
  • No continuity from the reading comprehension to the production of the main task
  • No contextually linked-vocabulary input
  • Not much thinking involved
slide106
How?

Modify the main task?

Rearrange the sequence of the reading texts/ tasks?

Develop some other activities to provide more input?

Infuse a thinking tool (e.g. S.C.A.M.P.E.R., Value Grid)?

Modify the design of some of the tasks/ practice/ activities?

our plan
Our plan…

Handout 6

conclusion
Conclusion

Why

What

How

slide110

Please fill in the

Evaluation Questionnaires

Thank you!

thinking skills
Thinking skills

Creativity

Critical Thinking

Problem Solving

slide112

Creativity

  • Produce original ideas
  • Go beyond the given information
  • Use imagination, curiosity
  • Generate new ideas and meanings by using an idea as a springboard for new ideas or ways of thinking
  • Open to new and unusual ideas/methods/approaches
slide113

Critical thinking

  • Extract, classify and organize information
  • Identify values, attitudes, beliefs, experiences in texts
  • Make predictions, inferences and evaluative comments
  • Compare and contrast ideas to find similarities & differences
  • Understand cause-and-effect relationships
  • Distinguish between facts and opinions
  • Make judgments through questioning and enquiry
  • Draw logical conclusions based on adequate date and evidence
slide114

Problem-solving

  • Identify the problem (e.g by gathering facts about the problem)
  • Solve the problem (by identifying sources of help and using the support and advice given to determine the best course of action)