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Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body. P. Abundo 1 , C. Trombetta 2 , C. Foti 3 and N. Rosato 1 1 Medical Engineering Service, Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome

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Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy:

effects on the human body

P. Abundo 1, C. Trombetta 2, C. Foti 3 and N. Rosato 1

1 Medical Engineering Service, Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome

2 PhD student in Advanced Technology in Rehabilitation Medicine, Tor Vergata University, Rome

3 Tor Vergata University, Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Public Health Department, Rome

 February 9th 2010


Index

Analysis of vibration peculiar parameters

Safety of workers subject to vibrations

Vibration human body effects

Vibration producing methods

Negative effects

Therapeutic application in rehabilitation medicine

Hormonal effect

Neuro-muscular system effect

Bone tissue effect

Biomedical vibration applications

Positive effects

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo


Analysis of vibration peculiar parameters

Period = T [s]

Frequency =1/T [Hz]

Movement Amplitude [m]

Velocity [m/s]

Acceleration [m/s2]

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Analysis of vibration peculiar parameters

Human body feels more the variation of a stimulus than its persistence

Vibration intensity

Resonance frequency

Vibration is amplified and the maximum vibration amplitude is theoretically infinite

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Vibration producing methods

Centripetal force generated by a body

rotating around a non barycentric axis

Non barycentric rotation axis

Rotating mass (m)

Uniform circular motion

Circumference radius equal to eccentricity (e)

Costant angular velocityin amplitude (Ω)

Mass

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Vibration producing methods

Piezoelectric effect – Jacques and Pierre Curie (1880)

~MHz

Crystal material thickness

Alternating current Frequency

Crystals specific property

Mechanical stress (contraction or expansion)

Alternating current

Crystal wave vibration frequency

Optimize vibrating head dimensions and weight

Policrystal ceramic (Barium titanate - BaTiO3)

Quartz

Topaz

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Vibration producing methods

Magnetic-dynamic transducer

Alternating current through coils

Membrane

Electric coils

Permanent magnet

Alternating current

Varying intensity magnet

N= Coils number

L= Coils lenght

I= Coils current

m= Magnetic Permeability

Permanent magnetic field

Coils vibrations

Membrane vibrations

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Biomedical vibration applications

Biomedical vibration applications

Piezoelectric or electro-magnetic Lithotripter (urological)

Piezoelectric surgical scaler (dental)

Piezoelectric Ultrasound probes

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Biomedical vibration applications

Ultrasound rehabilitation therapy (piezoelectric)

Rehabilitation Vibration Therapeutic Exercise (oscillating masses)

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Vibrations human body effects

Vibrations Frequency Bands

• 0 - 2 Hz → low frequency oscillations, generated by means of transportation (buses, airplains, ships);

• 2 - 40 Hz → middle frequency oscillations, generated by machine tools and industrial plant;

• > 40 - 50 Hz → high frequency oscillations generated by a lot of vibrating tools used in industrial field

Acceleration

Time Exposure

Contact Area

Contact Force

Ergonomical and environmental factors

Tissues Resonance Frequency

Body Effects

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Vibrations human body negative effects

Negative effects: vibration wave energy transferred from the oscillation source to the exposed body causes different effects on human tissues and organs crossed

Human Body

Human body doesn’t vibrate like a single mass with only one natural frequency, every body part has a its own resonance frequency

Tolerable vibration energy level

Long terms damages

Human body deterioration

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Vibrations human body negative effects

Vibration Direction

Vibration Touch point

Lower efficiency degree

Low-middle frequency vibrations

Whole Body Vibrations

Decrease of fatigue threshold

High frequency vibrations

Hand Arm Vibrations

Local negative effects

Middle - High frequency vibrations

Local negative effects (not only on HA system)

Local Vibrations

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Safety of workers subject to vibrations

In order to limit the negative effects of vibration on workers

D.Lgs 81/08

Hand Arm System

Te = daily exposure time to vibrations (hour)

8 = reference time (hours)

ax, ay,az = r.m.s.acceleration values (in m/s2) along  x, y, z axis (ISO 5349-1: 2001)

Equivalent Acceleration Exposure Limit Value = 5 m/s2

Whole Body

Te= daily exposure time to vibrations (hour)

8 = reference time (hours)

AMax = Maximum value among ax, ay, azax, ay,az = r.m.s  acceleration values (in m/s2) along axis x, y, z (ISO 2631-1: 1997)

Equivalent Acceleration Exposure Limit Value = 1 m/s2

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Vibrations human body positive effects

+

Specific Oscillation Frequency

Reduced Exposure Time

Positive Effects

Metabolic Adaptations

Mechanical

Skeletal and neuro-muscular system

Hormonal effects

Bosco C., Colli R., Introini E., Cardinale M., Tsarpela O., Madella A., Tihanyi J., Viru A. - Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure. Clinical Physiology. 19(2): 183-187, 1999.

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Therapeutic applications of vibration energy in rehabilitation medicine

…By using….

Whole Body Vibrations

Propagating to the whole human body

Vibrating Platforms

Hand Arm/Local Vibrationsinvolving Hand-Arm System or specific body part

Vibrating Tools

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Hormonal effects rehabilitation medicine

Testosterone and growth-hormone concentration

Cortisol concentration

Vibration frequency 20-50 Hz

Significant statistical improvement of testosterone and GH serum concentration

after whole body vibration exercise (10 times for 60 s, with 60 s rest time - B before, A after)

Bosco C., Iacovelli M., Tsarpela O., Cardinale M., Bonifazi M., Tihanyi J., Viru M., De Lorenzo A., Viru A. - Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in man. Eur J Appl Physiol. 81: 449-454, 2000; Kvorning T., Bagger M., Caserotti P. -Effects of vibration and resistance training on neuromuscular and hormonal measures.Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Mar;96(5): 615-25

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Neuro-muscular system effect rehabilitation medicine

Strengthening of the stimulation input, through the spindle

motor-neural connections (stretch reflex)

Locally applied vibrations to the muscle and to tendon structure (10-40 Hz)

Whole Body Vibrations (1-50 Hz)

Muscle spindle receptors activation

Tonic Vibration Reflex

Hagbarth e Eklund, 1966; Johnston e coll, 1970; Arcangel e coll., 1971; Armstrong e coll., 1987; Matyas e coll., 1986; Samuelson e coll., 1989; Bosco e coll., 2000; Y. Nishihira, T. Iwasaki, A. Hatta, T. Wasaka, T. Kaneda, K. Kuroiwa, S. Akiyama, T. Kida, K. Ryol - Effect of whole Body Vibration Stimulus and Voluntary Contraction on Motoneuron Pool, Advances in Exercise and Sports Physiology, Vol. 8, No. 4 - 03/03/2004

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Neuro-muscular system effect rehabilitation medicine

Better motor unit synchronization

Human explosive power improvement

Improvement of synergistic muscles coordination

Increase of contractile ability in muscular area subject to vibration exercise induces an evident “right-shift” of force-velocity curve and of force-power one

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Bone Tissue effect rehabilitation medicine

Vibration Therapeutic Exercise

Muscular function improvement

Effective stress on insertion bone

Bone mass development

Positively interfere on bone metabolism,also in osteoporotic degeneration case

therapy of choice concerning the geriatric medicine and the osteoporosis prevention

Rubin C., Turner A.S., Bain S., Mallinckrodt C., McLeod K. - Low mechanical signals strengthen long bones. Nature, 412(6847), 603-604, 2001.

Rubin e coll., Nature, 441: 603-604, 2001; Miyamoto K., Mori S., Tsuij S., Tanaka S., Mashiba T., Komatsubara S., Akijama T., Kawanishi J., Norimatsu H. - Whole Body Vibration Exercise in the Elderly People; P506F IBMS Osaka 2003

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Bone Tissue effect rehabilitation medicine

Upper and lower limb bone fractures treatment

More quickly bone reparation

Bone tissue adaptive response

Mechanical factor

Signal proportional to the applied load

Bone Deformation

osteocyte

Increase of bone forming

osteoblast

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human bodyPaolo Abundo


Conclusions rehabilitation medicine

Vibration Energy

By

IF

Patient application

  • Qualified clinicians

  • Using appropriate devices/procedures

  • Using specific frequency

Positive stimulus for the whole body

THEN

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo


Conclusions rehabilitation medicine

  • Application fields

  • In rehabilitation plans in which, an optimization of methods aimed at extensibility of muscle-tendon complex improvement, is required;

  • In geriatric patologies, to improve myo-osteo-articular functionality and in osteoporotic patients;

  • In sport field as alternative/complementary training method oriented to an explosive-force improvement;

  • In workplans oriented to painful pathologies such as in chronic low back- pain therapy

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo


Conclusions rehabilitation medicine

if applied in non specific way, WBV treatments could have non positive effects

…Last, but not least…

Importance of application mechanisms

The optimum is obtained localizing vibrations to a specific body part

When a systemic response is required

Whole body vibrations

When a local response is required

Local vibrations

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy: effects on the human body Paolo Abundo


Thanks for the attention rehabilitation medicine

Biomedical Application of Vibration Energy:

effects on the human body

P. Abundo 1, C. Trombetta 2, C. Foti 3 and N. Rosato 1

1 Medical Engineering Service, Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome

2 PhD student in Advanced Technology in Rehabilitation Medicine, Tor Vergata University, Rome

3 Tor Vergata University, Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Public Health Department, Rome

 February 9th 2010


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