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Carbohydrates (taking up the Organic chemistry worksheet)

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Carbohydrates (taking up the Organic chemistry worksheet). All organic compounds contain carbon All living things are composed of compounds containing a carbon skeleton. Carbon has the ability to bind four times; therefore all organic structures revolve around these bonds being full

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slide1

Carbohydrates

(taking up the Organic chemistry worksheet)

slide2
All organic compounds contain carbon
  • All living things are composed of compounds containing a carbon skeleton
slide3
Carbon has the ability to bind four times; therefore all organic structures revolve around these bonds being full
  • Compounds without carbon are generally classified as inorganic

Nutrients:

  • Carbohydrates (CHO's)

A) General/Functions:

    • Provide fast energy
    • Body unable to create, therefore generally the largest component of the diet
slide4
If not used – turned into fat
  • Comes primarily from plants: rice, potatoes, fruits, veggies.

B) Structure

    • Made of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O)
    • Can be single sugars or polymers of many sugar units
c types generally end in ose
Single sugars : monosaccharides
    • Structure
    • One single molecule
    • C:H:O ratio generally 1:2:1

Ex: hexose sugars: C6H12O6

C) Types: generally end in “ose”
slide6
Hexose sugars can be linear or ring structure

b) types

  • Glucose
    • Most common
    • Primary energy source
    • Found in honey
    • Hexose: C6H12O6
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Fructose
    • From fruits
    • Sweeter than glucose
    • Hexose: C6H12O6
  • Galactose
    • Hexose: C6H12O6
    • Part of lactose

glucose and fructose are isomers of each other, meaning that their chemical formula is the same, but their structures are different (fig 22.11)

2 complex sugars
Disaccharides: two monosaccharides linked together
  • Sucrose
    • Glucose + fructose
    • Common table sugar
    • From sugar cane and sugar beets
  • Maltose
    • Glucose + glucose
    • Seeds (from malt barley for malt for beer)
2) Complex sugars
slide9
Lactose
    • Glucose + galactose
    • Found in milk

*** disaccharides form by a process called: dehydration synthesis

means to: remove water to create

therefore in a dehydration synthesis reaction, water is always a product

C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 --> C12H22O11 + H2O

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Polysaccharides: chains formed of monosaccharide units
  • Starch: plant polysaccharide made of multiple glucose units
    • Amylose:
    • Up to 1000 glucose units
    • C1 linked to C4 of adjacent glucose molecules
    • Helical or coiled shape
slide11
2. Amylopectin:
  • 1000 to 6000 units
  • Short branching chains of 24 – 36 glucose units extending fro the main chain
cellulose
Part of plant cell walls
  • Many glucose units but linked differently from starch
  • Hydrogen bonds between layers (see fig 22.15)
  • Layers, not coils
  • Cannot be digested by humans
  • Called fibre or roughage
  • Water held by cellulose aids in elimination of waste
Cellulose:
glycogen
CHO stored in animals
  • Structure similar to amylopectin but branching chains are 16 – 24 units
  • Also more highly branched
  • Excess sugars in blood combined to form glycogen
  • Stored in liver and muscles
  • Decreased blood sugar results in glycogen being converted to glucose

(picture goes here...with all the branches and whatnot)

Glycogen
hydrolysis
Splitting a polymer (lysis) by the addition of a water molecule (hydro)
  • Digestion consists of hydrolysis reactions
Hydrolysis
through dehydration
Amino acids become proteins
  • Monosaccharides become Polysaccharides
  • Fatty acids become Lipids
  • Nucleotides become Nucleic acids (building blocks of DNA)
Through dehydration...