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Sonar and Echolocation Subject Topics: Physics and Biology. Engage. Exploring Sound. Option 1: Install a free oscilloscope app on your smart device Use the oscilloscope and your vocal cords to explore sound waves at various frequencies Option 2:
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Sonar and Echolocation Subject Topics: Physics and Biology
Exploring Sound Option 1: • Install a free oscilloscope app on your smart device • Use the oscilloscope and your vocal cords to explore sound waves at various frequencies Option 2: • Go to: www.iknowthat.com/ScienceIllustrations/sound/science_desk.swf • Flip the switch at the top of the interactive illustration to “Exploring Pitch and Volume” • Explore sound waves at various frequencies Objective: Differentiate the characteristics of high frequency verses low frequency sound waves using one of the following options:
High Frequency vs. Low Frequency • What did you learn about sound waves at with high frequency versus low frequency? • What is frequency measured in? Low Frequency Waves High Frequency Waves
The “Name That Sound” Game • Visit http://www.dosits.org/resources/all/downloads/powerpoints to listen to the sound. • Use the oscilloscope on your smart device to analyze the frequency of each sound. (optional) • Identify what is making the sound. • Show which answer you believe is correct: A – Hold up 1 finger B – Hold up 2 fingers C – Hold up 3 fingers D – Hold up 4 fingers 5. See if you were correct.
Guiding Questions • Why is sound so important in animals such as the ones you heard in the game? • Why is using sound and hearing sometimes superior to using light and vision?
Guiding Questions • Why do you think animals use difference frequencies of sounds? • How do you think an animal uses sound waves to locate objects? • What other animals use sound waves to locate objects?
App Download • For the next activity, you will need a noisemaking device. • Install a free noise-maker app on your smart device. The app should have standard sounds such as “clicks,”“pings,”“rings,” or “dings”
Guiding Questions Can and do humans use sound to make observations about location of objects around them? How accurate are humans at using sound to echolocate? What body system(s) is involved in echolocation? There are two methods of echolocation, any ideas on what those might be?
F L R B Battleship: Exploring How to “See” with Ears • 1 - Submarine listening for nearby battleships (triangles) • 2 – Battleships emitting sounds that the submarine can detect (star) • 1 – Facilitator and data recorder
F Front L R B Left Right Back KEY Red dot = Sunk battleship Blue dot = Correct location but missed distance Black dot = Missed battleship
Active vs. Passive Acoustics • Active Acoustics – a sound transmission is sent out and the echo or reflection of the sound off of an object is detected • Passive Acoustics – simply listening without transmitting sound or using echoes
What type of acoustic detection were you using during the investigation? Passive Listening without transmitting
Challenge Prove or disprove that humans are capable of using echolocation (active acoustics) to navigate. You will have the following supplies to complete this challenge: • large, flat, smooth boards • noise makers • blindfold
Time’s Up Return to your seats and be prepared to discuss your findings.
Guiding Questions Can and do humans use sound to make observations about location of objects around them? How accurate are humans at using sound to echolocate? What body system(s) is involved in echolocation? There are two different methods of echolocation, any ideas on what those might be?
Fun Homework Assignment • Using the internet, review a short video showing an example of a human using echolocation (also referred to as flash sonar) to navigate. • Possible search phrases: • “echolocation in humans” • “echolocation Daniel Kish”
Homework: Video Review • What did you learn from the video you reviewed? • What did you find most interesting? • Why do you think some visually impaired humans are extremely good at using echolocation?
What do we know about sonar and echolocation so far? Record student answers here.
Sonar vs Biosonar Sonar • Originally an acronym SONAR which stood for SOund Navigation And Ranging • It is a technique that utilizes sound waves as a tool for navigating, locating, and observing.
Sonar vs. Biosonar Biosonar • Term used when animals utilize sound waves to observe and navigate their environment • Often used interchangeably with the word echolocation • Although echolocation is more specifically active biosonar
Sonar Active Passive
Biosonar Active Passive
Key Points #1 Sound is utilized in water by humans and marine mammals, rather than light, because sound waves travel much better than light waves. In other words, it is easier to hear in the water than it is to see.
Key Points #2 Basic physics equations are used to calculate distance using active sonar. The equation is: Distance = speed of sound X time/2
Key Points #3 Echolocation was used by animals way before scientists developed sonar. The abilities of these animals are still much better than today’s sonar technologies.
Key Points #4 The fundamental technology and components of sonar were covered in this notes page. It is IMPORTANT to note that there are many types of sonar systems. Some are very complex and can provide military and others with vast amounts of information.
Basic Sonar Distance Calculation • To calculate distance, you must know two things: • The time it takes the sound to travel to the object in question and back again. • The speed that sound travels. • The data table in your notes page gives you the speed sound travels in different media at different temperature.
Let’s Listen and Calculate • Listen carefully for the echo in this sound clip. • It can be heard .75 seconds after the ping. • If the sound is traveling at 1,510m/s, how far away is the object from the transponder?
It’s Not Always That Simple • Although we are using basic calculations to determine distance, there are many variables that affect the propagation of sound waves and must be taken into account when analyzing sonar information. • These include: water/air temperature, density, absorption and scattering of sound waves and ambient noise.
Turning Echoes into 3-D Models • What is an echosounder? • How are echosounders used in mapping ocean floors and riverbeds? • How can data provided by echosounders be used in “seeing” under the water?
Turning Echoes into 3-D Models Problem: • A captain of a large shipping vessel is trying to navigate down a shallow stretch of river. • He claims to need a water depth of at least 5 meters to make it down the river. • He has asked for a 3-D model of what the riverbed looks like so he knows exactly where to navigate.
Turning Echoes into 3-D Models Tasks: (USE THE RUBRIC p.27) Using the data provided and what you know about sonar, complete the following: Graph the sonar data provided. Create a 3-D model of the riverbed. Present your model and recommendations to the ship’s captain.
Presentation • When the model is completed and meets all requirements outlined on the rubric, call me over to present the model and recommendation. • Use rubric to prepare presentation. • Presentations should be short and to the point.