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Milestones in Public Health: Chapter 7. Safer and Healthier Foods. Complete, Combined Lectures for Undergraduate, Graduate Public Health, and Medical and Clinical Education Levels. January 2011. Learning Objectives. Discuss the role of advocacy in raising awareness of food safety

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safer and healthier foods

Milestones in Public Health: Chapter 7

Safer and Healthier Foods

Complete, Combined Lectures for Undergraduate, Graduate Public Health, and Medical and Clinical Education Levels

January 2011

learning objectives
Learning Objectives

Discuss the role of advocacy in raising awareness of food safety

Describe the role of food fortification in public health

Explain the U.S. public health food safety infrastructure

Describe current U.S. food safety issues

Discuss foodborne gastrointestinal infections

Describe the causes, symptoms, and impact of E. coli on public health

Identify the USDA food pyramid

lecture outline
Lecture Outline

Looking Back

The U.S. Food Safety System

Current U.S. Food Safety Issues

Nutrition Labeling and Food Packaging

Looking Ahead

looking back
Looking Back

Pfizer Inc. (2006). Chapter 7: Safer and healthier foods. In Milestones in public health: Accomplishments in public health over the last 100 years. (p. 124). New York, NY: Pfizer Inc.

Up until the dawn of modern medicine, people did not

differentiate between food and medicine. Around 460

BC, Hippocrates recognized the essential relationship

between food and health, and urged others to closely

study the daily dietary regimens he associated

with good health.

Galen (AD 131-201), a Greek physician, warned about the common adulteration of food, and advocated moderation as the principal rule for a sound diet.

looking back cont
Looking Back (Cont.)

During the Middle Ages in Europe, trade guilds regulated food products, and oversaw: bakers, butchers, cooks, grocers, fruiters, poulters, and salters

Guilds had the power to search the premises and seize unwholesome products, regulating the marketing of food to the public

looking back cont1
Looking Back (Cont.)

In 1820, Frederick Accum published the treatise on “Adulteration of Food and Culinary Poison,” a milestone publication in exposing the nature, dangers and extent of food adulteration

Accum may represent the first food-safety person to promote public education efforts through means of mass communication available at his time

looking back cont2
Looking Back (Cont.)

In 1879, Peter Collier, chief chemist at the Department of Agriculture, proposed the Pure Food and Drugs Act

The legislature did not approve the act until 1906, following concerted advocacy by organized medicine, women’s groups, the press and state public health officials

Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle, which exposed unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry, aided advocates in their efforts

looking back cont4
Looking Back (Cont.)

Food fortification – Iodized salt

  • Iodine deficiency can cause goiter, a swelling of the thyroid gland
  • In 1924, food fortification began in the United States with the introduction of iodized salt in Michigan
  • Following the nationwide introduction of iodized salt , iodine deficiency disappeared as a serious health threat by the 1930’s
looking back cont5
Looking Back (Cont.)

Food fortification – Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

  • Niacin deficiency can result in Pellagra, which presents with dermatitis, diarrhea, inflamed mucous membranes, and in severe cases, dementia
  • Niacin is found in a variety of foods such as chicken, beef, liver, fish, cereal, peanuts and legumes
looking back cont6
Looking Back (Cont.)
  • Pellagra flares up when the skin is exposed to strong sunlight
  • In southern states in the late 1920’s pellagra represented a leading cause of death
  • In the 1930’s bakers began introducing Niacin into bread
safer and healthier foods2

Safer and Healthier Foods

The U.S. Food Safety System

the u s food safety system
The U.S. Food Safety System

In the current federal food-safety system, 12 different agencies enforce 35 different statues, which can lead to conflicts over turf that can potentially interfere with enforcement and prevention efforts

the u s food safety system cont
The U.S. Food Safety System (Cont.)
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
    • Food Safety Inspection Service
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
  • Office of Homeland Security
  • U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
  • State and local health departments
the u s food safety system federal level
The U.S. Food Safety System:Federal Level

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Food Protection Plan. Retrieved June 7, 2010 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodSafetyPrograms/FoodProtectionPlan2007/default.htm

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

“FDA regulates $417 billion worth of

domestic food and $49 billion worth of

imported food each year—everything

we eat except for meat, poultry,

and some egg products, which are

regulated by the U.S. Department of

Agriculture.”

the u s food safety system federal level cont
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points. Retrieved June 7, 2010 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/HazardAnalysisCriticalControlPointsHACCP/default.htm

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

“A management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product”

the u s food safety system federal level cont1
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2010). Food Safety and Inspection Service. Retrieved June 7, 2010 from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/About_FSIS/index.asp

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

“The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health agency in the USDA responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged”

the u s food safety system federal level cont2
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

Pfizer Inc. (2006). Chapter 7: Safer and healthier foods. In Milestones in public health: Accomplishments in public health over the last 100 years. (p. 144). New York, NY: Pfizer Inc.

USDA, The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)

  • Presently the FSIS lacks a comprehensive national regulatory program that governs the handling of poultry, egg, and meat products once they leave the leave a regulated plant
  • ”As of now, a mishmash of state and local regulations govern the transportation of these perishable foods from the time they leave the plant to the time they reach the consumer”
the u s food safety system federal level cont3
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Under the 2002 Bioterrorism Act, the USDA collaborates with the Department of Homeland Security in protecting the public from suspect foods and in securing the U.S. food infrastructure.

the u s food safety system federal level cont4
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Surveillance Systems:

  • FoodNet
  • PulseNet
  • Environmental Health Specialists (EHS-Net)
the u s food safety system federal level cont5
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Foodnet Brochure. Retrieved June 8, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/foodnet/foodnet_brochure.pdf

FoodNet, CDC – “an active surveillance system providing comprehensive and timely data on 9 foodborne diseases. Routinely contacts all clinical laboratories in the 10 Foodnet sites to collect information on every laboratory-confirmed case under surveillance”

Monitors trends and illness to specific locations and foods, permitting Foodnet and its partners to implement and assess interventions at many points in the “farm to table” continuum

the u s food safety system federal level cont6
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). CDC Pulsenet.Retrieved June 8, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/

Pulsenet, CDC – “a national network of public health and food regulatory agency laboratories coordinated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consisting of: state health departments, local health departments, and federal agencies (USDA/FSIS, FDA)”

“PulseNet participants perform standardized molecular subtyping (or “fingerprinting”) of foodborne disease-causing bacteria by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE can be used to distinguish strains of organisms such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, or Campylobacter at the DNA level”

the u s food safety system federal level cont7
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). CDC EHS-Net.Retrieved June 8, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/EHSNet/

Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), CDC

“A collaborative forum of environmental health specialists whose mission is to improve environmental health. These specialists collaborate with epidemiologists and laboratorians to identify and prevent environmental factors contributing to foodborne and waterborne illness and disease outbreaks”

the u s food safety system federal level cont8
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). CDC EHS-Net.Retrieved June 8, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/EHSNet/

the u s food safety system federal level cont9
The U.S. Food Safety System: Federal Level (Cont.)

The U.S. Department of Transportation

(DOT)

Regulates conditions for the transport of eligible products

In 1994, Congress approved a transportation bill that contained provisions addressing the sanitary transportation of food (e.g. the proper temperature of refrigerated trucks transporting food)

the u s food safety system state level cont
The U.S. Food Safety System: State Level (Cont.)

Mandatory certification for managers of

food service operations is present in

some states, not all

  • According to CDC and FDA, establishments without a certified manager are more likely to be associated with food-borne outbreaks
safer and healthier foods3

Safer and Healthier Foods

Current U.S. Food Safety Issues

current u s food safety issues
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues
  • Importing of foods from countries with less stringent food safety standards
  • Overabundance of sugar, salt, and hydrogenated oils; over-indulgence in processed foods; and control of portion size
    • Combined with a sedentary lifestyle, leads to increased incidence of chronic disease that disproportionately affects vulnerable populations
current u s food safety issues food borne illnesses
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues: Food-borne Illnesses

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Food-borne Illnesses

Symptoms: Ranging from mild to serious, in many cases resemble intestinal flu and may last a few hours or even several days

  • abdominal cramps
  • fever
  • dehydration
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea, which is sometimes bloody
current u s food safety issues food borne illnesses cont
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues: Food-borne Illnesses (Cont.)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Food-borne Illnesses

Vulnerable Populations include young children, pregnant women and their fetuses, and older adults are at greatest risk due to age and or state of immune system.

current u s food safety issues food borne illnesses cont1
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues: Food-borne Illnesses (Cont.)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Food-borne Illnesses

Public Health Impact:

  • Each year approximately 76 million cases of food-borne diseases occur in the U.S.
  • Each year, food-borne illnesses causes more than 300,000 hospitalizations and an estimated 5,000 deaths
current u s food safety issues food borne illnesses cont2
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues: Food-borne Illnesses (Cont.)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Raw foods are the most common source of foodborne illnesses

  • Raw meat and poultry contaminated during slaughter
  • Seafood contaminated during harvesting/processing
current u s food safety issues food borne illnesses cont3
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues: Food-borne Illnesses (Cont.)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Food-borne illnesses

Causes:

  • Caused by eating food or drinking beverages contaminated with bacteria, parasites, viruses or harmful chemicals
current u s food safety issues food borne illnesses cont4
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues: Food-borne Illnesses (Cont.)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Food-borne Illnesses

Causes:

  • Bacteria are the most common cause of foodborne illnesses
  • Contamination can take place during growing, harvesting, processing, storing, shipping or final preparation
current u s food safety issues food borne illnesses cont5
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues: Food-borne Illnesses (Cont.)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Food-borne Illnesses

Diagnosis:

  • Food intake history
  • Examination of the feces
  • Examination of the suspected food (bacterial toxins, viruses and parasites)
current u s food safety issues food borne illnesses cont6
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues: Food-borne Illnesses (Cont.)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2010 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Food-borne illnesses

Sources:

  • Bacteria: O157:H7 (E. coli), Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, Shigella, Salmonella
  • Parasites: Entamoeba histolytica, Trichinella
  • Viruses: Hepatitis A, Noroviruses
eschirichia coli o157 h7
Eschirichia coli O157:H7
  • Rangel, J.M., Sparling, P.H., Crowe , C., Griffin, P.M., & Swerdlow, D.L.
  • (2005, April). Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks,
  • United States, 1982–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases.
  • Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no04/04-0739.htm
  • First recognized as a pathogen in 1982 during an outbreak investigation of hemorrhagic colitis
  • Between 1982 and 2002, 49 states reported 350 outbreaks, representing 8,598 cases, 1,493 (17%) hospitalizations, 354 (4%) hemolytic uremic syndrome cases, and 40 (0.5%) deaths
  • Transmission route for 183 outbreaks (52%) was foodborne
  • 75 (41%) of the foodborne outbreaks were due to contaminated ground beef, and for 38 (21%) outbreaks, produce
eschirichia coli o157 h7 cont
Eschirichia coli O157:H7 (Cont.)
  • Rangel, J.M., Sparling, P.H., Crowe , C., Griffin, P.M., & Swerdlow, D.L. (2005, April).
  • Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002.
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no04/04-0739.htm

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed),Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.). (pp.619). Rochester, MN:Informa Healthcare

Annually causes 73,000 illnesses in the U.S.

Majority of reported U.S. cases transmitted through food

Majority of foodborne outbreaks attributed to ground beef

Symptoms: bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal cramps, fever, profound toxicity

May produce hemolytic uremic syndrome

Antibiotics not known to be effective

eschirichia coli o157 h7 cont1
Eschirichia coli O157:H7 (Cont.)

Meat becomes contaminated from cattle feces and cattle intestinal tract which contain E. coli

eschirichia coli o157 h7 and food safety inspection
Eschirichia coli O157:H7 andFood Safety Inspection
  • FDA’s Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HAACP)
    • requires microbial testing to detect E. coli and Salmonella
  • PulseNet, CDC
    • Network of state public health laboratories throughout the country that “fingerprint” E. coli 157
    • Matching “fingerprints” among different victims of an outbreak permits a focused investigation
preventing eschirichia coli o157 h7
Preventing Eschirichia coli O157:H7
  • Consumers:
    • urged to cook hamburgers well-done, with internal temperatures over 155 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Meat industry:
    • sprays cattle with milk-based substance that appears to kill E. coli
    • passes meat through steam cabinets in bags of hot water to kill bacteria
    • irradiation
preventing eschirichia coli o157 h7 cont
Preventing Eschirichia coli O157:H7 (Cont.)

Pfizer Inc. (2006). Chapter 7: Safer and healthier foods. In Milestones in public health: Accomplishments in public health over the last 100 years. (p. 136). New York, NY: Pfizer Inc.

  • Researchers:
    • Dr. James Russell recommends feeding cattle hay in order to change pH balance of cattle stomachs to prevent growth of E. coli
    • Meat industry resists feeding cattle due to increased cost from hay in comparison to corn
campylobacter jejuni c jejuni
Campylobacter jejuni(C. jejuni)

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.618). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

Associated with consumption of unpasturized dairy products and poultry

Incidence peaks in summer and late fall

10-30% of Guillain-Barre syndrome are preceded by C. jejuni infection

Invasive diarrhea, may be bloody, associated with fever

Diagnosis by isolation of organism from stool

Treatment: Erythromycin/supportive care

staphylococcus aureus s aureus
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.618). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

Preformed toxin ingested from contaminated food

Onset is abrupt (2-6 hours after ingestion)

Severe vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps

Duration of infection: 8-24 hours

Diagnosis based on rapidity of onset, presence of fever and history

Treatment: supportive care

clostridium perfringens
Clostridium perfringens

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.618). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

Associated with toxins formed in vivo often in improperly stored and prepared foods (poultry and meat products)

Toxin is destroyed in precooked food, but spores may survive and can germinate in rewarmed food

Toxin is produced when food is ingested

Associated with diarrhea (worse than vomiting), vomiting, and prominent abdominal cramping

Diagnosis based on later onset of symptoms than S. aureus and gram stain/culture of food

Treatment: supportive care

bacillus cereus
Bacillus cereus

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

  • Associated with two types of food poisoning:

1. Short incubation period (1-6 hours)

    • Associated with ingestion of preformed toxin (usually in fried rice)
    • Diarrhea

2. Longer incubation period (8-16 hours) post consumption of meat or vegetables

    • Diarrhea
    • Diagnosis by isolation of organism from food
  • Treatment: supportive care
vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

Causes toxigenic bacterial diarrheal disease

Associated with ingestion of undercooked shellfish

Treatment: fluid replacement (mainstay)

Tetracyclene shortens the duration of the disease

shigella species
Shigella species

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

Often acquired outside the US

Associated with drinking/eating contaminated water/food

Bloody diarrhea, bacteremia may occur, associated with fever

May precede onset of Reiter’s syndrome in individuals with HLA-B2 and group B Shigella flexneri

Treatment: Ampicillin (resistant strains are common), Norfloxacin or Ciprofloxacin

salmonella non typhi
Salmonella (non-typhi)

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

Associated with eating contaminated foods or with exposure to reptiles (pet iguanas, turtles)

Common cause of severe diarrhea (often non-bloody) and may cause septicemia in patients with sickle cell anemia or AIDS

Can lead to seeding of abdominal plaques yielding mycotic anuerysms

Diagnosed through stool culture

Treatment: supportive care

vibrio vulnificus
Vibrio vulnificus

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

Associated with eating raw oysters

Associated with bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and cellulitis (bullous skin lesions)

Occurs in people with cirrhosis and the immunocompromised

Incubation period: 18 hours

High mortality rate

Treatment: for uncomplicated gastroenteritis, supportive care

vibrio parahemolyticus
Vibrio parahemolyticus

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

Associated with eating undercooked shellfish

Acute onset of explosive diarrhea, watery diarrhea and fever

Diagnosed through stool culture

Treatment: supportive care

viral diarrhea noroviruses
Viral diarrhea, Noroviruses

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W., & Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review, (8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN: Informa Healthcare

Common cause of epidemic diarrhea and “winter vomiting” among children and adults

Self-limited (<36 hours)

Occurs in families, communities and institutions

Associated with ingestion of shellfish, undercooked fish, cake frosting, salads and contaminated water

Cause up to 10% of gastroenteritis outbreaks

Cause outbreaks in entire communities and on cruise ships

Treatment: supportive care

safer and healthier foods4

Safer and Healthier Foods

Nutrition Labeling and Food Packaging

looking ahead how to ensure a safe food supply
Looking Ahead: How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Irradiation

  • The treatment of food with x-rays, gamma rays or electron beams as a means of cold pasteurization
  • This process destroys living bacteria to control foodborne illnesses
looking ahead how to ensure a safe food supply cont
Looking Ahead: How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply (Cont.)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Irradiation

  • The U.S. employs gamma rays, which are similar to miccrowaves and ultraviolet light and pass through food with no residue
  • Food irradiation is approved for dry or dehydrated products, whole fresh fruits, potatoes, wheat, seasonings, spices, poultry, red meats and pork
looking ahead how to ensure a safe food supply cont1
Looking Ahead: How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply (Cont.)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House. (n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bacteria/

Irradiation

  • Irradiation destroys many bacteria but does not sterilize food
  • To safeguard against any surviving organisms, consumers must continue to take precautions against foodborne illnesses
looking ahead how to ensure a safe food supply cont2
Looking Ahead: How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply (Cont.)

Regulation

  • The presence of resistant strains of Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens results from sub-therapeutic antibiotic doses administered by farmers to poultry, swine, and penned fish in overcrowded facilities
  • Regulators need to carefully examine antibiotic use by farmers
looking ahead how to ensure a safe food supply cont3
Looking Ahead: How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply (Cont.)

U.S . Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). Terms of Environment, Glossary, Abbreviations, and Acronyms. Retrieved June 8, 2010 http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/gterms.html

Genetic Engineering

  • Process of inserting new genetic information into existing cells in order to modify a specific organism for the purpose of changing one of its characteristics
looking ahead how to ensure a safe food supply cont4
Looking Ahead: How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply (Cont.)

Pfizer Inc. (2006). Chapter 7: Safer and healthier foods. In Milestones in public health: Accomplishments in public health over the last 100 years. (p. 144). New York, NY: Pfizer Inc.

The Role of Education

  • “Educating those involved in producing, transporting, and preparing food, including consumers, can help stem the threat of serious foodborne illness.”