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Just-in-Time/Lean Production. A repetitive production system in which the processing and movement of materials and goods occur just as they are needed!. Pre-JIT: Traditional Mass Production. Post-JIT: “Lean Production”. Tighter coordination along the supply chain Goods are pulled along

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Just in time lean production l.jpg

Just-in-Time/Lean Production

A repetitive production system

in which the processing and movement of materials and goods occur

just as they are needed!



Post jit lean production l.jpg
Post-JIT: “Lean Production”

Tighter coordination along the supply chain

Goods are pulled along

— only make and ship what is needed


Jit goals throughout the supply chain l.jpg
JIT Goals(throughout the supply chain)

  • Eliminate disruptions

  • Make the system flexible

  • Reduce setup times and lead times

  • Minimize inventory

  • Eliminate waste


Waste l.jpg
Waste

Definition:

Waste is ‘anything other than the minimum amount of equipment, materials, parts, space, and worker’s time, which are absolutely essential to add value to the product.’

— Shoichiro Toyoda President, Toyota


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Forms of Waste:

  • Overproduction

  • Waiting time

  • Transportation

  • Processing

  • Inventory

  • Motion

  • Product Defects


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Inventory as a Waste

  • Requires more storage space

  • Requires tracking and counting

  • Increases movement activity

  • Hides yield, scrap, and rework problems

  • Increases risk of loss from theft, damage, obsolescence


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Building Blocks of JIT

  • Product design

    • Standard parts

    • Modular design

    • Quality

  • Process design

  • Personnel and organizational elements

  • Manufacturing planning and control


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Process Design

  • “Focused Factories”

  • Group Technology

  • Simplified layouts with little storage space

  • Jidoka andPoka-Yoke

  • Minimum setups


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Personnel and Organizational Elements

  • Workers as assets

  • Cross-trained workers

  • Greater responsibility at lower levels

  • Leaders as facilitators, not order givers




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Planning and Control Systems

  • “Small” JIT

  • Stable and level schedules

    • Mixed Model Scheduling

  • “Push” versus “Pull”

    • Kanban Systems


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Kanban

Uses simple visual signals to control production

  • Examples:

    • empty slot in hamburger chute

    • empty space on floor

    • kanban card


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Kanban Example

Workcenter B uses parts produced by Workcenter A

How can we control the flow of materials so that B always

has parts and A doesn’t overproduce?


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Kanban card: Signal to produce

When a container is opened by Workcenter B, its kanban card is removed and sent back to Workcenter A.

This is a signal to Workcenter A to produce another box of parts.


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Empty Box: Signal to pull

Empty box sent back. Signal to pull another full box into

Workcenter B.

Question: How many kanban cards here? Why?


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How Many Kanbans?

y = number of kanban cards

D = demand per unit of time

T = lead time

C = container capacity

X = fudge factor


Example l.jpg
Example

  • Hourly demand = 300 units

  • Lead time = 3 hours

  • Each container holds 300 units

  • Assuming no variation in lead-time or demand (x = 0): y = (300  3) / 300 = 3 kanban cards



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Note:

  • For a kanban system to work, we NEED CONSISTENT demand across the work centers

  • How do we ensure this?


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Mixed Model Sequencing

Largest integer that divides evenly into daily requirement is 10:

A: 40 / 10 = 4

B: 40 / 10 = 4

C: 10 / 10 = 1

Mixed model sequence: A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-C


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Implementing JIT

What about automation?



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