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PORTFOLIO AS A LEARNING TOOL FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS. Kirsti Lonka, Ph.D., Professor of Medical Education, Centre for Cognition, Understanding, and Learning (CUL) Department of LIME Karolinska Institute, Stockholm , Sweden. THE CUL VISION.

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portfolio as a learning tool for medical students

PORTFOLIO AS A LEARNING TOOLFOR MEDICAL STUDENTS

Kirsti Lonka, Ph.D.,

Professor of Medical Education,

Centre for Cognition, Understanding, and Learning (CUL)

Department of LIME

Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

the cul vision
THE CUL VISION
  • ”BestEvidence Medical Education”-Practices should be based on best possible evidence and innovative thinking.
some key activities of cul
SOME KEY ACTIVITIES OF CUL
  • Starting research groups
  • Faculty development of the teachers of Karolinska Institutet
  • KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET PRIZE FOR RESEACH IN MEDICAL EDUCATION

(50 000 €, 2004) NOVEMBER 3, 2004!

  • International and National Research and Development Projects
  • Evaluation and assessment
  • KI Learning Lab
vad r reflektion
VAD ÄR REFLEKTION?
  • Att ha ett kritiskt förhållningssätt till sina handlingar
  • Att ta emot och ge feedback
  • Att ha distans till sig själv
  • Att ifrågasätta sina egna metoder
integrated competence
Integrated Competence
  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Ethics
  • Communication
  • Emotions

-> Expert thinking and professional practice

problem in medical education
PROBLEM IN MEDICAL EDUCATION?
  • Too much action, not enough reflection!
  • Overwhelming experiences that are never processed
  • Reflective practice calls for possibilities for systematically learning from the experience
two aims of assessment that may disturb each other
TO SUPPORT LEARNING

self-assessment

students’ own development

motivation for life-long learning

are the central goals being met?

formative

TO CONTROL THE OUTCOMES

grading, scoring

performance, competing

to please the teacher, to continue studies

what are the criteria for passing?

summative

TWO AIMS OF ASSESSMENT (that may disturb each other)
writing shapes thinking
WRITING SHAPES THINKING

Research shows that writing is a powerfool tool for enhancing learning

  • The act of writing is an aid to students’ learning, a tool to be used in acquiring mastery over new information, and a means of revealing present understanding of a given subject
  • Properly implemented writing activities are effective in fostering good writing, and also encouraging more reasoned and disciplined thinking about the topics themselves.

P.Tynjälä, L. Mason, & K. Lonka (Eds.) Writing as a Learning Tool: Integrating theory and practice. Studies in Writing, Vol. 7. Dordrecth, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

what do we know about effective study strategies
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT EFFECTIVE STUDY STRATEGIES?

In Learning-from-text tests:

  • Only copying information is not efficient
  • Writing by own words or constructing visual maps enhances learning from text – especially when problem solving is called for
  • Students who only read texts without any note taking activity were the least successful in any kinds of tasks
  • (Lonka et al, 1994, Slotte & Lonka, 1999ab; 2001ab)
what is a portfolio
WHAT IS A PORTFOLIO?
  • PRODUCT: ”A collection of products of student work showing student reflection and progress or achievement over time in one or more areas” (Bryant & Timmins, 2002)
  • PROCESS: Using writing as a tool for reflection and systematic analysis of learning
why to use learning portfolios
WHY TO USELEARNING PORTFOLIOS?
  • to support and clarify professional development
  • helps to make the learning goals clear and to follow how they are achieved
  • an aid to students’ learning and knowledge
  • an aid for constant self-reflection and self-assessment
  • to support the learning process rather than control the learning outcomes
  • reveals the strengths and weaknesses of training, and helps developing better ways of learning
current trends in assessment
BEFORE

book exams

indirect criteria

competing, product

reproduction

evaluating one course at a time

concentrating on present state

NOW

course work, projects, portfolios

cooperation, processes

competencies, skills

holistic evaluation

previous and future potential looked at

CURRENT TRENDS IN ASSESSMENT
slide14

Lonka, K. Slotte, V., Halttunen, M., Kurki, T., Tiitinen, A. Vaara, L. & Paavonen, J. (2001) Portfolios as a learning tool in obstetrics and gynaecology undergraduate training.Medical Education, 35, 1125-1130.

  • A special structured portfolio booklet for medical students in gynaecology training .
  • Objectives:

1 ) to support the learning process of the students.

2 ) to get information for enhancing the quality of teaching

  • 91 medical students who completed the portfolio during gynaecology training course.
results lonka et al 2001
RESULTS(Lonka et al, 2001)
  • The amount of text written in the portfolios correlated with success in a final exam
  • Using portfolio enhanced the learning process during the course
  • Portfolios also acted as learning logs, where students could report all procedures they carried out
  • Students appreciated the departmental interest in their development and feedback
slide16

The amount of text in a

portfolio

N

Mean

S.D.

F-value

Not much

16

65,80

9,31

In average

30

69,79

11,27

Much

37

77,16

10,95

4.17*

Total

83

72,12

11,49

* = p< 0.001.

why not use portfolios
WHY NOT USE PORTFOLIOS?

Using portfolios

  • challenges our traditional ways of thinking about teaching, learning and assessment
  • call for changing the learning culture for both teachers and students
  • Require team work and collaboration among academic and hospital staff
  • Provide fundamentally new kinds of knowledge about our students’ thinking and development – they are not stupid after all!