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Digestive Tract. GI (Gastrointestinal) Tract or Alimentary Canal “How French Fries become Feces”. Vocabulary. Purloin (v)- to steal; take something dishonestly Succinct (adj)- speaking/writing in a brief and concise manner (syn. terse, pithy)

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digestive tract

Digestive Tract

GI (Gastrointestinal) Tract or Alimentary Canal

“How French Fries become Feces”

vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • Purloin (v)- to steal; take something dishonestly
  • Succinct (adj)- speaking/writing in a brief and concise manner (syn. terse, pithy)
  • Abstruse (adj)- something which is difficult to understand
  • Clandestine (adj)- an action or activity that is secretive, furtive
  • Cabal (n)- small group of people meeting together to put in an agenda or course of action that is normally bad.
  • Malevolent (adj)-{malevolence-(n)}-having/showing ill-will, hatred, or evil toward someone; (syn: malicious)
  • Frugal (adj)- to be “cheap” or thrifty in money
  • Respite (n)- a short interval of relief from something stressful; “a peaceful break”
  • Edict (n)- a order/decree/proclamation issued by someone of authority.
  • Incorrigible- (adj)- unable to be corrected of bad habits or behavior
oral cavity
Oral Cavity
  • Food is placed into the Oral Cavity for ingestion
    • Teeth break down food into smaller pieces, this process is known as mastication.
teeth
Teeth
  • Medical Root (Dento)
  • There are 32 adult teeth
  • Made out of Calcium
  • 3 Types
    • Incisors- all purpose teeth located in the front
    • Canines-sharp “fang” teeth used for tearing meat
    • Molars- in the back, used for grinding
major features of the mouth
Major Features of the Mouth
  • Uvula
    • Soft tissue which hangs from the Soft Palate
  • Frenulum
    • Fold underneath the tongue which helps keep it in place.
  • Palate
    • Superior aspect of mouth
    • Serves as the roof between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity.
    • Hard Palate is most anterior, followed by Soft Palate
  • Palatine Tonsils
    • Located in back of mouth
    • Their job is to attract pathogens
salivary glands
Salivary Glands
  • Once food is in mouth, the brain secretes saliva to assist with the chemical breakdown of food.
  • 3 Salivary Glands (“Sialo”)
    • Parotid
      • Located in front of the ears
    • Sublingual
      • Located under the tongue
    • Submandibular
      • Located under the jawbone
      • All can become block and infected
  • The tongue (“linguo”) and teeth assist in the mechanical breakdown of food by masticating
    • The tongue is held in place by the Hyoid bone, a bone in the middle of throat.
  • The tongue has taste buds of sweet, sour, bitter, salty
pharynx throat
Pharynx (throat)
  • The Pharynx is comprised of three sections, though it is one large cavity.
  • The last two sections are shared by the digestive and respiratory systems
    • 1. Nasopharynx
      • Most superior; not relevant in the digestive tract
    • 2. Oropharanx
      • Posterior part of oral cavity
      • Food is pushed to the oropharynx by the tongue
pharynx throat cont
Pharynx (Throat) (cont)
    • 3. Laryngopharynx
      • Most inferior part of throat
      • Here, the throat divides into two roads.
        • 1. Digestive- the pharynx becomes the esophagus to take food to stomach
        • 2. Respiratory- the trachea (windpipe) begins to carry air to lungs.
  • Epiglottis- small flap that covers the trachea so food doesn’t enter it.
  • The epiglottis remains open at all times aside from swallowing to allow for breathing
  • Once food is eaten it is called a Bolus
diagnostic tools of upper gi tract
Diagnostic Tools of Upper GI Tract
  • Barium Swallow
    • Barium “lights up” when drunk.
    • Xrays are then taken
  • Endoscopy
    • A camera (endoscope) is inserted into the mouth.
    • It is guided down the pharynx, esophagus, and stomach to:
      • Take pictures
      • Remove suspicious items
      • Video
esophagus
Esophagus
  • Tube that carries bolus (food) from throat to stomach
  • Esophagus looks like a deflated balloon.
    • “Food” passes through it like a snake eating a rat.
  • It isposterior to the trachea, passes between the lungs, and through the diaphragm to enter the abdominal cavity to reach the stomach.
  • Esophagus is lined with smooth muscle to push the “food” down.
    • Peristalsis is the constant involuntary movement of food throughout the GI tract.
    • We do not control it.
stomach gastro
Stomach =“Gastro”
  • Stomach is mainly a food reservoir and “pacer” for the small intestines.
  • It is in the upper left quadrant
  • HCL acid is released here to chemically break the bolus down
  • Pepsin, an enzyme, is released to break down protein.
  • The Rugae muscles in stomach twist and turn to mechanically break the food down.
  • Bolus enters stomach through the Cardiac (aka Gastro-esophageal) sphincter
      • A sphincter is a valve or door that prevents contents from entering/exiting
      • Sometimes, the HCL acid escapes into the esophagus and causes GERD (aka reflux or heartburn)
  • Stomach is divided into 3 major regions
    • Once it enters the stomach the bolus lies in the 1) Fundus.
      • Most superior part of the stomach
      • Mostly full of air
stomach cont
Stomach (cont)
  • 2) Body
    • The central part of the stomach
  • 3) Pylorus
    • Most distal or end part of stomach
    • Pyloric sphincter
      • Door that separates stomach from small intestines
        • It opens and closes based on how much the intestines can digest at that time
      • Food becomes “chyme” when it enters the small intestines.
  • The Curvatures
    • The Greater Curvature
      • Bottom curve of the stomach
    • The Lesser Curvature
      • The top curve of the stomach
  • Bezoar
    • Hairballs lodged in stomach that are never digested.
  • The Omentum
    • Drape of fat that extends from the Greater Curvature down over the intestines
the stomach
The Stomach
  • Stomach lined with Hydrochloric Acid (HCL)
    • Assist with chemical breakdown of bolus
    • Stomach also produces this mucous to protect the stomach lining from burning
    • Peptic Ulcers
      • H. Pylor bacteria disrupts balance
      • HCL acid begins burning through the rugae
    • Perforation
      • When HCL burns through the stomach lining completely and acid drips into abdominal cavity.
      • Causes: Stress, poor diet, eating disorders, etc
      • Show Video
small intestines or small bowel
Small Intestines or Small Bowel
  • Main site of digestion
  • Sits in the middle of abdomen surrounded by the large intestines
  • Intestines kept together by a web of fat called the Mesentary.
    • Consists of 3 parts
      • Duodenum-1 ft long
        • Receives the digestive juices from the pancreas and liver
      • Jejunum-8 ft long
      • Ileum-12 ft long
villi site of absorption
Villi-site of absorption
  • Absorption takes place by microscopic cells called villi in the small intestines.
    • They absorb nutrients which are then whisked away by the little veins to be filtered by the liver.
    • Indigestible food is carried to the Large Intestines.
pop quiz
Pop Quiz
  • Define the following on a piece of paper.
    • Palate
    • Peristalsis
    • Pyloric Sphincter
    • Villi
accessory digestive organs
Accessory Digestive Organs
  • The liver and pancreas assist in digestion by releasing digestive juices into the Duodenum.
  • However, chyme (food) does not enter these organs.
liver
Liver
  • Organ responsible for “cleaning” the body and producing cholesterol and bile.
  • Divided into 4 lobes
    • Left and Right lobes are on the anterior separated by the Falciform ligament
    • On the posterior aspect are the Caudate and Quadrate lobes
    • The liver produces bile, an enzyme which breakdowns fat
    • Inside the bile is a yellowish product called bilirubin, which is a by-product of the destruction of old red blood cells (RBC).
    • Bile is stored in the gall bladder, a small pouch underneath the liver
      • When you eat a fatty meal the bile is released by the gall bladder to help with digestion.
    • The bile gets to the duodenum of the small intestines by a collection of tubes called the Biliary Tree, or “Tree of Bile”
    • When bile pieces become hardened they become gall stones (“cholelithiasis”)
      • Sometimes they get lodged in gall bladder or in biliary tree causing RUQ pain.
pancreas
Pancreas
  • Largest gland in body
    • 3 sections
      • Head- Largest part closest to Duodenum
      • Neck
      • Tail- skinny part which stretches laterally
  • Produces 2 major things:
    • 1. Trypsin- an enzyme used to breakdown protein (similar to pepsin in stomach)
    • 2. Hormones responsible for regulating blood sugar
      • Insulin- secreted when sugar is too high in the blood to lower it
      • Glycogen- secreted when sugar is too low to raise it.
large intestines
Large Intestines
  • Once food is digested by villi in small intestines, the unabsorbed “food” enters the large intestines
  • The large intestines is the “poop” maker
    • NO ABSORPTION TAKES PLACE HERE!
    • Feces is brown in appearance due to the mixture of bile and bilirubin.
  • The large intestines surround the small intestines.
large intestines1
Large Intestines
  • 5 feet long
  • Takes about 16 hours for food to pass through it.
  • Primary responsibility to absorb remaining water from the waste matter and then turn it into feces.
  • Bolus=Chyme=Feces
  • Flatulence is gas caused by the breakdown of food in the intestines by bacteria
  • Most flatulence is nitrogen, C02, and methane.
  • General Anatomical Features
    • Taeniae Coli- 3 bands of connective muscles that run throughout the large intestines that helps push the feces
    • Haustra- large pouches formed by Taeniae Coli
large intestines cont
Large Intestines (cont)
  • Large Intestines consist of 3 parts
  • Cecum
  • Colon
  • Rectum
    • 1. Cecum (RLQ)
      • Small pouch of Lower Intestines that connects with ileum of small intestines
      • The appendix hangs from it
large intestines cont1
Large Intestines (cont)
  • 2. Colon
    • The Colon has 4 sections.
    • A. Ascending Colon
      • Rt side of abdomen
      • Stops at Hepatic (Liver) Flexure
        • Flexure holds up right side of colon
    • B. Transverse Colon
      • Runs along the superior aspect of abdomen
      • Stops at Splenic (spleen) Flexure
        • Flexure holds up left side of colon
    • C. Descending Colon
      • Lt side of abdomen
    • D. Sigmoid Colon
      • “S” shaped colon that runs from descending colon posteriorly to the rectum.
large intestines2
Large Intestines
  • 3. Rectum
    • Final part of large intestines
      • “Poop” reservoir holding feces to be defecated
  • Anus
    • Anal sphincter
    • Site of hemorrhoids
digestive medical roots
Gingivo-gums

Lingo/Glosso- Tongue

Sialo-salivary glands

Pharyngo-throat

Esophago-Esophagus

Gastro-Stomach

Entero-Intestines

Chole-Bile

Cholecyst-Gall Bladder

Cholelithiasis-Gall Stones

Colo-Colon

Recto-Rectum

algia=pain

itis

ectomy

Tomy= surgical opening

Oma

Logy

Graph=radiographic study of

Digestive Medical Roots
med terms
Med Terms
  • Anorexia-lack of appetite
  • Emesis- Vomiting
  • Hematemesis- bloody vomit
  • Hematochezia- bloody feces
  • Defecation- the process of “pooping”
  • Dysphagia- Difficulty swallowing
  • Aphagia- Inability to swallow
  • Incontinence- Inability to hold one’s feces or urine.
  • Cholecystitis- Inflammation of gall bladder
  • Cholecystectomy- Removal of gall bladder
  • Colostomy/Ileostomy Bag- “pooping out” of a bag attached to your stomach.
  • Proctology- the branch of medicine dealing with the colon, rectum, and defecation problems..
more terms
More Terms…
  • Enema- placing a water solution in your anus to cleanse the colon.
  • To Eructate- the act of belching
  • To Expectorate- the act of spitting or coughing
  • Halitosis- bad breath
  • Volvulus- the twisting of your intestines
  • Pica- a craving to eat inanimate objects
  • To intubate (v)- to forcefully open the throat
  • To aspirate (v)- the process of removing food when stuck in the throat, normally done by suction.
  • Flatus- gas
  • Deglutition- the act of swallowing
abbreviations
Abbreviations
  • A.S.= Left Ear
  • A.D.= Right Ear
  • ATC= Around the clock
  • NKDA= No Known Drug Allergies
  • N/V= Nausea & Vomiting
  • Q2h= Every 2 Hours
  • Q4h= Every 4 Hours
  • SOB= Shortness of Breath
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