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EUT440 ENGINEERS IN SOCIETY

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  1. EUT440 ENGINEERS IN SOCIETY • WEEK 3 • 26th SEPT 2013 • Knowledge Sincerity Excellence

  2. Types of HAZARDS - categories • Physical Hazards • Chemical Hazards • iii. Biological Hazards • iv. Electrical Hazards • Radiation Hazards • vi. Psychological Hazards eg. workplace, space, organizational culture, stress

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT • Safety Management System includes - IDentifying the hazard (thatcan cause harm) • Assessing the risk (chance – high/lowitcanharmyou, if itcanharm, how serious) – RiskAssessment • Controlling the risk • Eliminating the hazard, if possible • Minimizing, if possible • Controlling the hazard - Checking and Reviewing the risk control

  4. RISK ASSESSMENT

  5. RISK ASSESSMENT A risk assessment - careful examination what could cause harmto people, so that you can weigh up whether you have taken enough precautions or should do more to prevent harm. Workers and others have a right to be protected from harm caused by a failure to take reasonable control measures. The law does not expect you to eliminate or control all risk - due to limited resources. But you are required to protect people as far as is ‘reasonably practicable’.

  6. RISK ASSESSMENT Don’t overcomplicate the process. In many organizations, the risks are well known and the necessary control measures are easy to apply. You probably already know whether, for example, you have employees who move heavy loads and so could harm their backs, or where people are most likely to slip or trip. If so, check that you have taken reasonable precautions to avoid injury. If you run a small organization and you are confident you understand what’s involved, you can do the assessment yourself. You don’t have to be a health and safety expert.

  7. How to Assess the Risk? Two approaches - Qualitative - Subjective • Perception • Likelihood and Consequences • Likelihood: Very Often, Often, Seldom • Consequence: Fatal, Major and Minor - Quantitative - Objective • Historical data • Probability of occurrence (Frequency): Incidents/200,000 MH/Year • Consequence - Direct and Indirect Cost

  8. eg. Qualitative – risk martix Risk Assessment Matrix Hazard Categories 4 3 2 1 Frequency of Occurrence Catastrophic Critical Marginal Negligible (5) Frequent 20 15 10 5 (4) Probable 16 12 8 4 (3) Occasional 12 9 6 3 (2) Remote 8 6 4 2 (1) Improbable 4 3 2 1 Hazard Risk Index Risk Criteria: Risk Classification – WEIGH FACTOR: From 10 to 20 Unacceptable From 6 to 9 Undesirable From 3 to 5 Acceptable with review From 1 to 2 Acceptable without review

  9. Qualitative Approach

  10. Frequency of Occurrence -definition

  11. Hazard Categories -definition

  12. Quantitative Approach

  13. Quantitative Approach FREQUENCY AND SEVERITYRATES i. Frequency Rate – to determine the frequency of accidents or injury or severity of injury The methodologies are similar in all cases, but the bases used may differ If A - the event for which the frequency rate is to be computed; B – numerical base C – exposure, than: Frequency Rate = (A * B)/C (B – is the base that differs)

  14. Quantitative Approach Frequency Rate = (A * B)/C (B how it - differs) • AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) B = 1,000,000 man-hours 2. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS USE BASE (B) AS 100 FULL-TIME EMPLOYEES WOULD WORK 200,000 HR/YR ( ie 100 WORKER 40 HR/WEEK/WORKER, 50 WEEKS/YR)

  15. Quantitative Approach IF A PLANT HAD 18 ACCIDENT/YEAR (= A) DURING WHICH EMPLOYEE WORKED A TOTAL 1,200,000 HOURS (=C) IF DURING THE SAME PERIOD THERE WERE 6 DISABLING INJURIES • AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) B = 1,000,000 MAN-HOURS i. ACCIDENT FREQ RATE = 18 * 1,000,000 = 15.0 PER MILLION MAN-HRS 1,200,000 ii. INJURY FREQ RATE = 6 * 1,000,000 = 5.0 PER MIL MAN-HRS 1,200,000 2. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS (BLS) B = 200,000 HR/YR i. ACCIDENT FREQ RATE = 18 * 200,000 = 3.0 PER 200,000 MAN-HRS 1,200,000 ii. INJURY FREQ RATE = 6 * 200,000 = 1.0 PER 200,000 MAN-HRS 1,200,000

  16. Quantitative Approach SO WHEN FREQUENCY RATES ARE CITED, IT IS NECESSARY TO KNOW THE BASE

  17. Quantitative Approach ISSUES IN SEVERITY RATE: • SOME INDUSTRY - RATES MAY BE HIGH BUT INJURY MAY BE MINOR • OTHER INDUSTRY, FEW ACCIDENTS (LOW RATES) BUT INJURY IF OCCUR MAY BE SEVERE

  18. Quantitative Approach ANSI USES TIME CHARGES IN DISABLING INJURY SEVERITY RATE eg. FATALITY OR PERMANENT TOTAL DISABILITY – TIME CHARGE = 6000 DAYS (THIS IS BASED ON LIFE EXPECTANCY OF AN AVERAGE WORKER x THE NUMBER OF WORKING DAYS/YR) TIME CHARGES FOR: LOSS OF EYE = 1,800 DAYS LOSS OF BOTH EYE = 3,000 DAYS TABULATED IN ANSI STANDARDS

  19. Quantitative Approach AS IN THE PREVIOUS EXAMPLE (ANSI): IF 6 DISABLING INJURY RESULTED IN 240 DAYS LOSS: DISABLING INJURY SEVERITY RATE CAN BE CALCULATED TOTAL DAYS CHARGE * 1,000,000 = 240 * 1,000,000 = 200.0 DAYS PER EMPLOYEE HRS OF EXPOSURE 1,200,000MILLION MAN-HRS THE AVERAGE SEVERITY PER INJURY CAN ALSO BE CALCULATED – 2 WAYS AVG DAYS CHARGED = TOTAL DAY LOSS OR CHARGE = 240 = 40 TOTAL NUMBER OF DISABLING INJURY 6 OR = INJURY SEVERITY RATE = 200 = 40 INJURY FREQUENCY RATE 5 PREVIOUS CALCULATION

  20. Quantitative Approach TO CALCULATE COSTS (USING BLS METHOD) Example, fall = 10 incidents/200,000 MH/Year; and in average one fall accident costs USD 1000. - Note: 200,000 = number of hours that 100 employees work in a year, which is 40 hrs per week x 50 weeks x 100 • If a construction site employs 200 workers • The estimate of fall related cost is • 200 x 40 x 50 / 200000 = 2 injuries • Estimated Cost = 2 x 1000 = USD 2,000 / year

  21. Selecting jobs • Simple guidelines to select jobs to beanalyzed: • Accident frequency • Accident severity • Judgement and experience (hazardous jobs) • Jobs withhigh turnover • New jobs • Non routine jobs • Routine jobs

  22. OUTCOME OF RISK ASSESSMENT - RISK MATRIX

  23. RISK MANAGEMENT • Safety Management System includes - IDentifying the hazard (thatcan cause harm) • Assessing the risk (chance – high/lowitcanharmyou, if itcanharm, how serious) – RiskAssessment • Controlling the risk • Eliminating the hazard, if possible • Minimizing, if possible • Controlling the hazard - Checking and Reviewing the risk control

  24. Risk Elimination • This is the best solution, however sometimes it is not practicable Example - Lead-based paint can cause lung cancer - Solution: replace the type of the paint with water-based paint

  25. Risk Minimization • Reduce the number of people exposed to the hazard • Change with other types although new ‘safer’hazards may occur • Reduce the exposure of the hazards

  26. Risk Control • Fall Æ wear body harness • Noise Æ wear earmuff • Welding Æ wear mask • Vibrator Æ wear leather glove • Chemical Æ wear safety clothe

  27. Review and Check • Check the effectiveness of the safety risk management • Review new hazards and technology

  28. In order for us to achieve the objectives of managing the OSH at workplace, we THEREFORE need to look at a systematic process.

  29. This is no ONE WAY to do a risk assessment, there are many methods that work well, particularly for more complex risks and circumstances

  30. Risk Management Steps (HSE Approach) •Read RiskManagement Steps by HEALTH AND Safety Exécutive (HSE ) national independentregulator to reduceworkplacedealth and injury in HOME WORKING & HOME WORKERS in Great Britain

  31. Require a Systematic Process The systematic process is HIRARC - the basis of occupational safety and health – in MALAYSIA – Min of Human Resources HIRARC Guidelines

  32. HIRARC HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, RISK ASSESSMENT & RISK CONTROL

  33. HIRARC WHY WE NEED TO MANAGE HAZARDS – THE RISK MANAGEMENT? • RESPONSIBILITY TO COMPLY WITH LAW • FACTORY AND MACHINERY ACT 1967 • SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 1994 .

  34. Mandatory under the law. It is one of the general duties as prescribed under the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514) for the employer to provide a safe workplaces to their employees and other related person. ……. OSH ACT

  35. THE ACTS

  36. HIRARC • WHY WE NEED TO MANAGE HAZARDS – THE RISK MANAGEMENT? • 2. TO COMLPY WITH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM STANDARDS (MS 1722:2003, OHSAS 18001, ISO 14001, others.)

  37. HIRARC • WHY WE NEED TO MANAGE HAZARDS – THE RISK MANAGEMENT? ………cont • 3. TO ENABLE AN ORGANIZATION TO MANAGE HAZARDS EFFECTIVELY • - especially when hazard appears to pose significant threat • - to identify all factors that may cause harm to employers & others, the HAZARDS • - to consider what the chances of that harm actually be falling in the circumstances • - before implementing corrective or preventive measures • 4. TO INDENTIFY WHETHER THE CURRENT CONTROL IS SUFFICIENT AT ALL TIMES • - uncertain existing measures adequate ?.

  38. HIRARC . HIRARC is a compound word, made up of 3 consecutive activities running one after the other. The activities consist of Hazard Indentification, Risk Assessmentand Risk Control.

  39. HIRARC Hazard Indentification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control. Hazard indentification is the recognising of things which may cause injury or harm to a person. Risk assessment is the looking at the possibility of injury or harm occurring to a person if exposed to a hazard. Risk control is the introduction of measures which will eliminate or reduce the risk of a person being exposed to a hazard.

  40. HIRARC Before the process of identifying any hazards begin, it is necessary to know how to classify what is hazard, risk and danger. Hazard - anything that can cause harm. Risk - a probability of harm actually being done. Danger - the relative exposure to a hazard.

  41. HIRARC

  42. HIRARC – process flow

  43. Thank you