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Propaganda & Persuasion Effects. News Media & Propaganda. Whenever possible, propagandists attempt to control the news media. The role of the news media in propaganda varies according to country and culture.

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Presentation Transcript
news media propaganda
News Media & Propaganda
  • Whenever possible, propagandists attempt to control the news media.
  • The role of the news media in propaganda varies according to country and culture.
  • In an open society, the news media are more often channels of propaganda than actual propagandists.
When the state controls the news media, they are often utilized for propaganda purposes.
  • New technologies provide opportunities for propagandists (& counter-propagandists)
theory of uniform effects
Theory of uniform effects:
  • Members of mass society perceive & respond to messages uniformly
  • Magic bullet theory
  • Hypodermic theory

SOURCE --------------> RECEIVER

limited effects model
Limited effects model
  • A variety of factors intervene between source & receiver to affect message reception
  • Considers:
  • source characteristics
  • message characteristics
  • receiver characteristics
mcguire s model of persuasion
McGuire's Model of Persuasion
  • *exposure
  • attention
  • comprehension
  • yielding
  • retention
  • action
message effects1
Message Effects

1. Effects greatest when message reinforces existing opinions, beliefs, and dispositions.

Selective exposure


Selective perception

  • Mass communication tends to reinforce rather than change
2.When change occurs, a multitude of factors are involved:
  • mass media
  • social conditions
  • group interaction
  • opinion leaders (multistep flow)
  • source credibility
3. Audience most likely to be influenced when issues are:
  • peripheral
  • unfamiliar
  • lightly felt
  • not tied to predispositions
Deeply rooted issues, based on values and past behavior patterns, not as likely to experience change
  • political loyalty
  • race
  • religion
4. The propagandist who can get people to agree w/him on one or two issues is likely to influence attitudes on other issues as well.

Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance

people will make adjustments to maintain a "consistency of attitudes”

5. People can appear to accept an idea publicly without private acceptance.

Spiral of Silence

Public behavior may also differ from private behavior.

6. A dominant definition of a situation accompanied by a consistent, repetitious, and unchallenged message, increases the influence of the message.

Perceived power of persuader is key

7. Consistent exposure to a specific point of view when the audience has none of its own stands a good chance of making some impact.

Theory of exposure learning