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Issues in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector Faced by Article 5 Parties. Roberto A. Peixoto Maua Institute of Technology - IMT. Disclaimer : The views expressed are those of the author and do not represent those of the TEAP or the RTOC. Background Challenges and Barriers

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Issues in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector Faced by Article 5 Parties

Roberto A. Peixoto

Maua Institute of Technology - IMT

Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the author and do not represent those of the TEAP or the RTOC

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Background

  • Challenges and Barriers
  • Way forward
background
Background
  • Number of RAC products will increase strongly in developing countries
    • population growth, fast urbanization, electrification and changes in consumer patterns
    • development of the cold chain, especially commercial refrigeration, and the automobile industry (MAC)

Source: GIZ-2013

background1
Background
  • Demand for refrigerant will increase
  • RAC products will play a role in:
    • future energy consumption
    • GHG emission
  • Article 5 countries have progressed in implementation of their Stage I HPMPs and are in the process to start preparation of Stage II HPMPs
  • Article 5 countries will need to address the RAC manufacturing/servicing sectors
    • Reduce/control the number of new HCFC-22 based installations
  • High-GWP HFCs have been/are considered as replacements for HCFCs
challenges and barriers
Challenges and Barriers
  • To avoid replacing HCFCs with high-GWP HFCs
  • Alternative refrigerants must provide:
    • environmental sustainability
    • performance
    • safety
    • total cost of ownership
  • Some low GWP options are not fully mature at present and their application cannot be achieved immediately
  • The use of unsaturated HFCs (HFOs) for the conversion of refrigeration/air-conditioning equipment is yet to be demonstrated
  • Companies in 5 countries do not agree to implement technology not yet commercialized in developed countries
challenges and barriers1
Challenges and Barriers
  • The use of flammable refrigerants requires assessing procedures and establishing standards on good practices
  • High ambient temperatures generate more stringent conditions and lead to more restrictive conditions in terms of refrigerant choices
  • Regulations requiring air-conditioning equipment to be energy efficient in order to enter the market increases the need to find alternatives in the short term
  • Need to assess climate impact of RAC equipment during their lifetime: emissions of refrigerants, energy consumption
  • UNEP study: Barriers to the Use of low GWP Refrigerants in Developing Countries
way forward
Way forward
  • Technology to leapfrog high-GWP HFCs in RAC is available in many applications
  • Adoption of technically and economically feasible alternatives
    • safe, climate friendly and energy efficient
  • needs support for technology transfer, technical and other guidance
  • Introduction and update of safety standards on refrigerants
  • Demonstration projects and financial incentives to support low GWP technologies
  • Technician training is essential for the proper handling of refrigerants
  • Regulations and voluntary agreements
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