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Early Foreign Policy Houses of Valois & Habsburg England’s Position The Outbreak of Confessional Conflict Wars in France & The Netherlands The Protestant Cause The Escalation of English Involvement Anti-Catholicism; Philip II War in the New World The Polarization of Religio-Politics Nonsuch Open War with Spain The Enterprise of England After the Armada Elizabethan Foreign Policy & The European Wars of Religion Armada Portrait, by George Gower, c. 1588 Woburn Abbey
Early Foreign Policy Houses of Valois & Habsburg War for Dominion in Italy, 1550s Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, 1559 Spanish Power in Italy France Retains Lands North, East England’s Position Second-Rank Power to France/Spain Embarrassed by Loss of Calais Elizabethan Settlement Strong Protestant Stance Catholic Hegemony on Mainland Reformation in Scotland, ‘59/60 Anglo-Scots Alliance vs. France Knox’s Famously Ill-Timed Treatise
The Outbreak of Confessional Conflict Wars in France Factions & Regency Guise, Bourbon/Montmorency 1562: Massacre of Vassy English Aid in ‘62/3 The Netherlands 1566: Beeldenstorm Nationalism or Protestantism? Alba’s Arrival, 10k Troops William of Orange to Saxony 1568: Orange, German, French The Eighty Years War The Protestant Cause Confessional Solidarity Domestic Stability; International Involvement Beeldenstorm in eenKerk, Dirck van Delen, 1630
The Escalation of English Involvement Anti-Catholicism; Anti-Protestantism At Core of Elizabethan Identity Papal Deposition of ER, ‘70 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, ’72 Anglo-German Cooperation English Volunteers (Religious Motives) Philip II’s Vision of Empire A Child of Charles V, HRE King-Consort of England Interest in Naval Powers; Portugal, 1580 The New World Spanish Treasure, Bullion English Privateers, Sir Francis Drake 1577-80, Circumnavigation, Loot 1585 Raids on Spanish Ports, in N.W. La Saint-Barthélemy, by François Dubois, c. 1572-84; Musée cantonal des Beaux-Arts de Lausanne
The Polarization of Religio-Politics The Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585 Assassination of William of Orange, ‘84 Treaty of Joinville, ‘84 (Guise-Spain) Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester Governor General, Military Man Sustained English Involvement Open War with Spain Netherlands a Spanish Territory Justify Rebellion or Aid Brethren? Pan-European Wars Portugal, Italy, L.C.: Philip II France, Scotland: Guise & Mary HRE: Emperor & Bavaria England: Domestic & Internt’l Plots William of Orange, 1555, by AntonisMor; Staatliche Museen, Kassel
The “Enterprise of England”: Grand Armada Lengthy Preparation Height of Spanish Naval Power Massive Influx of Bullion From Early 1586; Late July 1588 Drake’s Raids of Iberian Coast, 1587 “The Worst Kept Secret in Europe” About 122 Ships; 30k Men Duke of Medina Sidonia To Meet with Parma’s 30k Men Crescent of Massive Vessels The English Fleet and Victory Admiral Howard, V-Ad. Drake Faster, Lighter Ships Fire Ships, A Providential Wind 4 Ships Sunk; Dozens Ran Aground From the History Department of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point
The Armada Medal “Flavit Jehovah et dissipatisvnt” “God Blew and they were scattered” “Allidor non Laedor” “I am Attacked, [but] I am not wounded”
After the Armada Security of Dutch Protestants Consolidation & Stability Chaos in France Guise Brothers, Dec. ‘88 Henri III, July ‘89 Henri IV Defending Huguenots Anglo-German Aid Conversion to Cath., ‘93 Returning Spanish Armadas War of Attrition (£) Triple Alliance vs. Spain Irish Rebellion, 1593-1603 English Settlements; Spanish Aid Continued Catholic Threat Broadside depicting the assassination of Henri III, King of France, by the monk, Jacques Clément, August 2, 1589.In the papers of Christian, Elector of Saxony, HStA Dresden, GR, Loc. 9304/7, fol. 336r.