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Chapter 18. The Winter of Northern Discontent. Recap: What’s Happening. McClellan has been removed from command by President Lincoln Gen. Don Carlos Buell has also been removed from command in the West

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chapter 18

Chapter 18

The Winter of Northern Discontent

recap what s happening
Recap: What’s Happening
  • McClellan has been removed from command by President Lincoln
    • Gen. Don Carlos Buell has also been removed from command in the West
  • President Lincoln is working out the final preparations to pass the Emancipation Proclamation
  • The Confederacy is fervently trying to secure European aid
the battle of fredericksburg
The Battle of Fredericksburg

In late 1862, Lincoln replaced McClellan with Ambrose E. Burnside (left).

Burnside was a reluctant commander and had turned down this position in the past, but Lincoln had no other options at this point.

the battle of fredericksburg1
The battle of Fredericksburg
  • Burnside quickly moved the Army of the Potomac south, feinting towards the Orange and Alexandria RR while actually moving towards Falmouth.
  • Burnside planned to move across the Rappahannock River and swiftly march on Richmond, just over 50 miles south of Falmouth.
  • For once Lincoln believed he had found an able and dynamic general.
the battle of fredericksburg2
The battle of Fredericksburg
  • Unfortunately, Burnside’s pontoons did not arrive on time.
  • This gave Lee and the Confederate army time to occupy Fredericksburg and the heights overlooking the town from the Southwest.
  • Movie time
aftermath
Aftermath
  • The Union suffered 12,600 casualties to the Confederacy’s sub-5,000.
  • The Union army retreated North once again in defeat and Burnside was quickly removed from command.
the war in the west
The War in the West
  • During the final days of 1862, the Army of the Cumberland under William Rosecrans engaged the Army of Tennessee at Stones River, just outside of Murfreesboro, TN.
  • On the night of Dec. 30th, the bands of the two armies played popular songs back and forth to each other.
the battle of stones river
The battle of stones river
  • Like most battles, the Confederacy struck early in the morning, surprised the Yankees, and appeared to have won the battle easily on the first day.
  • And like most battles, the Union army rallied before the end of the day and was able to stall the Confederate attacks the next day.
  • Union casualties: 31%
  • Confederate casualties: 33%
  • Highest combined rate of the war
the vicksburg campaign
The Vicksburg Campaign
  • During the debacle of Fredericksburg and the battle of Stones River, General Ulysses S. Grant was having troubles of his own in the Deep South.
  • The Union army had taken control of most of the Mississippi River, with the exception of one major city; Vicksburg.
the vicksburg campaign1
The Vicksburg Campaign
  • Vicksburg sat at the top of a tall bluff overlooking a bend in the Mississippi River. If the Union captured it, they would have complete control over the Mississippi River.
  • For the first 4 months of 1863, Grant tried many different methods to bypass Vicksburg altogether. None worked.
  • However, by late March, Grant had a risky plan that might finally succeed.
the vicksburg campaign2
The Vicksburg Campaign
  • Grant moved his troops overland south of Vicksburg and sent his gunboats downriver past Vicksburg.
  • Overall, the plan worked: the boats made it past with minimal casualties and were able to ferry Grant’s army across the river onto the east bank, on the side of Vicksburg.
  • Grant struck out east, took Jackson, then turned around and headed for Vicksburg.
the vicksburg campaign3
The Vicksburg Campaign
  • Once Grant reached Vicksburg, he had his troops surround the city on the land side and moved his gunboats in to cut the city off from the river.
  • However, for the first time in months, the Rebels turned the Yankees away from Vicksburg in a series of frontal assaults ordered by Grant.
  • In response, Grant settled down for a siege and waited for the Southerner’s food and supplies to run out.
back east
Back East
  • After Burnside was removed from command, General Joseph Hooker took his place.
  • Hooker, a fiery man, took many steps to revive morale in the Army of the Potomac.
  • Hooker boasted that he had created the finest army on the planet in late spring. And finally, he began to move.
chancellorsville
Chancellorsville
  • Like Burnside, Hooker started off great. He divided his forces, leaving 40,000 in front of Lee at Fredericksburg while taking 70,000 downriver and moving in on Lee’s flank.
  • However, like Burnside and McClellan before him, when Hookers forces encountered Lee’s near Chancellorsville on May 1st, he chickened out and pulled back.
  • The following night, Lee found a way to outwit the Army of the Potomac once again.
after chancellorsville
After Chancellorsville
  • In the night following the battle, General Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded by friendly fire and would die soon after.
  • Grant was stuck in front of Vicksburg and Hooker limped back north toward Washington with his army.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • In the east, the Army of the Potomac was broken multiple times by Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia, due to incompetent generaling.
  • In the west, General Grant was causing havoc and threatened to finally take control of the Mississippi and divide the Confederacy in two.