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Pests and Diseases. 28.00: Examine distinguishing characteristics of pests so as to determine best management practices. 29.00: Compare methods of control of horticulture plant pests. What is an insect?. Small animals that have three body regions and three pairs of legs equaling six legs

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pests and diseases

Pests and Diseases

28.00: Examine distinguishing characteristics of pests so as to determine best management practices.

29.00: Compare methods of control of horticulture plant pests.

what is an insect
What is an insect?
  • Small animals that have three body regions and three pairs of legs equaling six legs
  • Body regions
    • head
    • thorax
    • abdomen
types of insects
Types of Insects
  • The five types of mouthparts are important in identifying and controlling insects.
    • Chewing
    • Piercing
    • Rasping
    • Siphoning
    • Sponging
chewing insects
Chewing Insects
  • Insects tear, chew or grind food
  • Examples
    • grasshopper
    • beetle
piercing insects
Piercing Insects
  • Punctures plant and sucks the sap
rasping insect
Rasping insect
  • Rasps or breaks surface and sucks sap
  • Example
    • thrips
siphoning insects
Siphoning insects
  • Have a coiled tube they dip into liquid food such as nectar and draw it in
  • Example
    • butterfly
sponging insects
Sponging Insects
  • Have two sponge-like structures that collect liquid food and move it into the food canal
  • Example
    • housefly
life cycles
Life Cycles
  • Complete metamorphosis has four stages
    • egg
    • larva-worms or caterpillars
    • pupa
    • adult-flies, beetles, etc.
life cycles10
Life Cycles
  • Incomplete metamorphosis has three stages
    • egg
    • nymph
    • adult
chewing insects12
Chewing Insects
  • Parts of leaves are eaten away
    • beetles
    • cutworms
    • caterpillars
    • grasshoppers
chewing insects13
Chewing Insects
  • Beetles
    • eat leaves, stems, flowers, fruit and nuts
  • Cutworms
    • usually attack stems, but may eat other plant parts
chewing insects14
Chewing Insects
  • Caterpillars
    • larva of moths and butterflies
    • fuzzy or hairy
    • eat young leaves and stems
    • roll up in leaves making leaves curl
  • Grasshoppers
    • eat all parts of plants
sucking insects
Sucking Insects
  • Aphids
  • Leaf bugs
  • Mealy bugs
  • Scale
  • Thrips
  • Whiteflies
  • Pierce and suck juices
  • known as plant lice
  • cause stunted growth and yellow spotted leaves
  • causes sticky substances and black mold
  • will attract ants
leaf bugs
Leaf Bugs
  • Cause plants to look unhealthy
  • plants will lose their normal color and wilt
mealy bugs
Mealy Bugs
  • Pierce and suck from underside of leaves and in leaf axils causing yellow appearance and sticky secretions
  • Appear as black or brown raised lumps attached to stems and underside of leaves causing yellow leaves and stunted growth
  • Chew and then suck causing plant tissue to become speckled or whitened, leaf tip to wither, curl up, or die
  • Feed on underside of young leaves causing yellowing
  • will look like flying little white specks when plants are shaken
  • Attack underside of leaves causing gray to grayish-green spots
  • severe infestations cause webbing
  • A disease is a plant disorder caused by an infectious pathogen or agent
  • There are 3 conditions necessary for diseases in plants
    • host plant
    • disease causing organism or pathogen must be present
    • favorable environment for disease organism to develop
  • There are four groups of pathogens
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • viruses
    • parasitic plants (attach to plants)
      • mistletoe
      • dodder
      • lichens
  • Causes plants to quickly turn brown or black as if they had been burned
  • Causes open wounds on woody plants
damping off
Damping off
  • A fungal disease that causes young plants and seedlings to rot off at soil level
  • Swellings or growths on plants
leaf spots
Leaf Spots
  • Rings of different shades of brown, green or yellow that make spots on leaves
  • Grows on leaf surfaces--both upper and lower--as white, gray or purple spots
  • Caused by viruses that make the leaves have irregular mottled areas with patterns ranging from dark green to light green to yellow to white
  • Cause plant to decay and die
  • Causes small spots on leaves that resemble yellow, orange, brown or red rust mainly on the underneath side of leaves
  • A black, powdery disease that causes blisters that burst open releasing black spores
  • A disease that blocks the uptake of water in plant stems causing plants to wilt
disease control
Disease Control
  • Preventing plant diseases is better than treating the diseases
  • Plant diseases must be identified before they can be treated
  • Warm temperatures and moist conditions in greenhouse plant production make most horticulture plant diseases worse because of environmental conditions that support disease-causing pathogens
controlling insects
Controlling Insects
  • Insects can be controlled using the following methods:
    • biological
    • chemical
    • cultural
    • mechanical
    • natural
    • quarantine
biological control
Biological Control
  • Uses natural enemies such as birds, other insects, etc.
chemical control
Chemical Control
  • The use of pesticides or insecticides
  • Insects must be killed when they are actively feeding or moving on the plant
chemical control58
Chemical Control
  • Contact poisons
    • affect the insect’s nervous system and must come into contact with the insect to be effective
  • Fumigants
    • poisonous gases released into an enclosed place so that insects breathe the gases
chemical control59
Chemical Control
  • Stomach poisons
    • sprayed on the plant surfaces or are taken into the plant through absorption.
    • The insect must suck the poison to get it into the stomach for this method to be effective.
    • Systemic poisons are more effective for controlling sucking insects.
cultural control
Cultural Control
  • Involves sanitation, removing insect breeding and hiding areas and using insect resistant plant varieties
mechanical control
Mechanical Control
  • Uses physical control such as insect traps, using screens over fans and other openings, and washing plants with soapy water.
natural control
Natural Control
  • Methods include natural barriers such as rivers, woods, mountains and predators to control insects.
  • Physically isolates insects from healthy plants
  • A combination of control methods is called Integrated Pest Management or integrated control.