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Pests and Diseases

Pests and Diseases

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Pests and Diseases

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  1. Pests and Diseases 28.00: Examine distinguishing characteristics of pests so as to determine best management practices. 29.00: Compare methods of control of horticulture plant pests.

  2. What is an insect? • Small animals that have three body regions and three pairs of legs equaling six legs • Body regions • head • thorax • abdomen

  3. Types of Insects • The five types of mouthparts are important in identifying and controlling insects. • Chewing • Piercing • Rasping • Siphoning • Sponging

  4. Chewing Insects • Insects tear, chew or grind food • Examples • grasshopper • beetle

  5. Piercing Insects • Punctures plant and sucks the sap

  6. Rasping insect • Rasps or breaks surface and sucks sap • Example • thrips

  7. Siphoning insects • Have a coiled tube they dip into liquid food such as nectar and draw it in • Example • butterfly

  8. Sponging Insects • Have two sponge-like structures that collect liquid food and move it into the food canal • Example • housefly

  9. Life Cycles • Complete metamorphosis has four stages • egg • larva-worms or caterpillars • pupa • adult-flies, beetles, etc.

  10. Life Cycles • Incomplete metamorphosis has three stages • egg • nymph • adult

  11. Life Cycles

  12. Chewing Insects • Parts of leaves are eaten away • beetles • cutworms • caterpillars • grasshoppers

  13. Chewing Insects • Beetles • eat leaves, stems, flowers, fruit and nuts • Cutworms • usually attack stems, but may eat other plant parts

  14. Chewing Insects • Caterpillars • larva of moths and butterflies • fuzzy or hairy • eat young leaves and stems • roll up in leaves making leaves curl • Grasshoppers • eat all parts of plants

  15. Sucking Insects • Aphids • Leaf bugs • Mealy bugs • Scale • Thrips • Whiteflies

  16. Aphids • Pierce and suck juices • known as plant lice • cause stunted growth and yellow spotted leaves • causes sticky substances and black mold • will attract ants

  17. Aphids

  18. Leaf Bugs • Cause plants to look unhealthy • plants will lose their normal color and wilt

  19. Leaf Bugs

  20. Mealy Bugs • Pierce and suck from underside of leaves and in leaf axils causing yellow appearance and sticky secretions

  21. Mealy bugs

  22. Scale • Appear as black or brown raised lumps attached to stems and underside of leaves causing yellow leaves and stunted growth

  23. Scale

  24. Thrips • Chew and then suck causing plant tissue to become speckled or whitened, leaf tip to wither, curl up, or die

  25. Thrips

  26. Whiteflies • Feed on underside of young leaves causing yellowing • will look like flying little white specks when plants are shaken

  27. Whiteflies

  28. Mites • Attack underside of leaves causing gray to grayish-green spots • severe infestations cause webbing

  29. Mites

  30. Plant Diseases

  31. Diseases • A disease is a plant disorder caused by an infectious pathogen or agent

  32. Diseases • There are 3 conditions necessary for diseases in plants • host plant • disease causing organism or pathogen must be present • favorable environment for disease organism to develop

  33. Pathogens • There are four groups of pathogens • bacteria • fungi • viruses • parasitic plants (attach to plants) • mistletoe • dodder • lichens

  34. Blight • Causes plants to quickly turn brown or black as if they had been burned

  35. Blight

  36. Canker • Causes open wounds on woody plants

  37. Canker

  38. Damping off • A fungal disease that causes young plants and seedlings to rot off at soil level

  39. Damping Off

  40. Gall • Swellings or growths on plants

  41. Leaf Spots • Rings of different shades of brown, green or yellow that make spots on leaves

  42. Mildew • Grows on leaf surfaces--both upper and lower--as white, gray or purple spots

  43. Mosaic • Caused by viruses that make the leaves have irregular mottled areas with patterns ranging from dark green to light green to yellow to white

  44. Mosaic

  45. Rots • Cause plant to decay and die

  46. Rust • Causes small spots on leaves that resemble yellow, orange, brown or red rust mainly on the underneath side of leaves

  47. Rust

  48. Smut • A black, powdery disease that causes blisters that burst open releasing black spores

  49. Smut

  50. Wilt • A disease that blocks the uptake of water in plant stems causing plants to wilt