Pain Management. Purpose: This program is to describe basic pain management principles related to types of pain, how to recognize pain, and how to use pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain treatments. Objectives.
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Purpose: This program is to describe basic pain management principles related to types of pain, how to recognize pain, and how to use pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain treatments.
Brief duration, goes away with healing, usually 6 months or less.
Chronic Cancer Pain
Pain is expected to have an end, with cure or with death.
Chronic Non-Malignant Pain
Pain has no predictable ending
Source: Skin, muscle, and connective tissue
Examples: Sprains, headaches, arthritis
Description: Localized, sharp/dull, worse with movement or touch
Pain med: Most pain meds will help, if severe, need a stronger medication
Source: Internal organs
Examples: Tumor growth, gastritis, chest pain
Description: Not localized, refers, constant and dull, less affected with movement
Pain Med: Stronger pain medications
Source: Sensitive nerve fibers on the outer surface of bone
Examples: Cancer spread to bone, fx, and severe osteoporosis
Description: Tends to be constant, worse with movement
Pain Med: Stronger pain meds, opiates with NSAIDS as adjunct
Examples: Diabetic neuropathy, phantom limb pain, cancer spread to nerve plexis
Description: Burning, stabbing, pins and needles, shock-like, shooting
Pain Meds: Opioates+tricyclic antidepressants or other adjuvant
Asking about pain is an important part of ALL assessments!!
Consider the following when assessing residents with dementia or communication problems:
Rules of thumb, common sense rules:
Elderly present several pain management problems:
Educating staff is essential!!
The following MDS items could be primary or secondary triggers for recognizing pain:
For example, repetitive verbalization, persistent anger, repetitive health complaints; sad, worried, facial expression, crying, tearfulness, repetitive movements, reduced social interaction.
For example, wandering, verbally abusive, physically abusive, socially inappropriate, resists care.
For example, covert/open conflict or repeated criticism of staff, unhappy with roommate, unhappy with other residents.
For example, deep vein thrombosis, arthritis, hip fracture, missing limb, osteoporosis, pathological bone fracture, cancer.
For example, wound infection
For example, mouth pain.
For example, inflamed, swollen, bleeding gums, abscesses, ulcers or rashes.
For example, skin ulcers, abrasions, bruises, rashes, skin tears, cuts, surgical wounds, skin treatments; foot problems.
19 CSR 30-85.042 (67)
Requires the facility to address the resident’s pain:
“Each resident shall receive personal attention and nursing care in accordance with his/her condition and consistent with current acceptable nursing practice.”
42 CFR Section 483.20 (b), F272
Requires facility to make a comprehensive assessment:
“A facility must make a comprehensive assessment of resident’s needs, using the RAI specified by the state.”
42 CFR 483.20 (k) F279
Requires facility staff to develop a comprehensive care plan to address pain:
“The facility must develop a comprehensive care plan for each resident that includes measurable objectives and timetables to meet a resident’s medical, nursing, mental, and psychosocial needs that are identified in the comprehensive assessment.”
42 CFR Section 483.25, F309
Requires facility staff to meet the pain needs of the resident:
“Each resident must receive and the facility must provide the necessary care and services to attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being, in accordance with the comprehensive assessment and plan of care.”