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Measuring Blood Pressure

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  1. Measuring Blood Pressure

  2. Why Blood Pressure? • Accurate Blood Pressure Measurement is the first step in treating hypertension or high blood pressure. • 30% done inaccurately • Primary factor in 68% of heart attacks and 75% of strokes. • Hypertension is one of the major modifiable risk factors for many cardiovascular diseases

  3. A few definitions • Blood Pressure- measurement of the force exerted by blood against the walls of the arteries • Systolic blood pressure- the pressure in the large arteries when the heart is contracted • Diastolic Blood pressure- the pressure in the large arteries when the heart is relaxed

  4. More definitions • Hypertension- PERSISTENT elevation of either diastolic or systolic blood pressure • Essential (primary) hypertension- high blood pressure with no identifiable cause • Secondary hypertension- high blood pressure with a known cause

  5. Korotkoff Sounds • First Phase • A clear tapping sound; onset of the sound for two consecutive beats is considered systolic • Second Phase • The tapping sound followed by a murmur • Third Phase • A loud crisp tapping sound

  6. Korotkoff Sounds Cont. • Fourth Phase • Abrupt, distinct muffling of sound, gradually decreasing in intensity • Fifth Phase • The disappearance of sound, is considered diastolic blood pressure- two points below the last sound heard

  7. Steps for Measuring Blood Pressure • Seated for 5 minutes • Patient Position • Expose Upper arm • Center of upper arm at heart level

  8. Steps for measuring cont. • Cuff applied 1 inch above crease at elbow • Locate brachial artery • Palpate radial pulse • Inflate cuff until pulse disappears

  9. Steps for measuring cont. • Let air out • Place stethoscope on brachial artery • Pump up cuff to 20-30 above point of obliteration • Let air out at 2 mmHg per second

  10. Steps for measuring cont. • Note 1st and 5th Korotkoff sounds • Chart: • #’s • Position • Arm used • Cuff size • Normal, pre-hypertension, stage 1 hypertension, or stage 2 hypertension • Recommendations of what’s next

  11. What would you tell a person about their blood pressure reading? • Definition of Blood Pressure • Numerical Value • Blood Pressure Category • When to Recheck • Medications if Necessary • Lifestyle Modifications

  12. Normal Blood Pressure in Adults (18 or older) is: • 115/75 • Below 120/80 mmHg • Below 160/90 mmHg • Depends on your age

  13. Which of the following can cause sounds to be heard down to zero mmHg? • Anemia • Vigorous exercise • Heavy pressure on the stethoscope • All of the above

  14. A cuff with a bladder too small for the patients arm will result in: • An inaccurately high reading • An inaccurately low reading • Sounds heard down to zero mmHg

  15. If the cuff is applied too loosely, the pressure reading will be: • Too low • Too high • Not affected

  16. Unless otherwise indicated, measure the blood pressure using the patient’s ____ arm. • Right • Left • Either arm is alright

  17. Common causes of errors in blood pressure measurement include: • Cuff applied over clothing • Leaks in the pressure bulb or tubing • Arm above or below heart level • All of the above

  18. Some factors that can alter blood pressure are: • Smoking • Anxiety and other emotional states • Talking • Full bladder • All of the above • B & D only

  19. When using the Auscultatory-Palpatory technique of blood pressure measurement, the pressure in the cuff should be raised: • 20-30 mmHg higher than the point where the pulse disappeared. • 30 mmHg higher than the systolic pressure • 20 mmHg higher than the systolic pressure

  20. While taking a blood pressure, the first sound heard through the stethoscope is at 150 mmHg and sounds are heard from “150” until the last sound is heard at 78 mmHg. What is the patient’s blood pressure? • 150/78 • 148/76 • 150/76 • 148/78

  21. While taking a blood pressure, the screener is not sure if the first sounds were heard at 170 mmHg. What action should be taken? • Immediately deflate the cuff to “0”, wait 30 seconds and reinflate the cuff. • Immediately reinflate the cuff above 170 mmHg and listen carefully for the first Korotkoff sounds. • Deflate the cuff to “0”. Immediately reinflate the cuff to 30 mmHg above estimated systolic pressure and listen carefully for the first Korotkoff sounds.

  22. When performing the Auscultatory-Palpatory technique of blood pressure measurement, you feel the radial pulse disappear at 175 mmHg. What should you do next? • Continue to inflate the cuff to 205 mmHg; place the stethoscope over the brachial artery; slowly deflate the cuff and listen for the Korotkoff sounds. • Place the stethoscope over the brachial artery, slowly deflate the cuff and listen for the Korotkoff sounds. • Deflate the cuff fully; wait 30 seconds; place the stethoscope over the brachial artery; reinflate to 205 mmHg and listen for the Korotkoff sounds. • A or C dependent on experience

  23. Which of the following will increase the loudness of Korotkoff sounds? • Have the patient open and close their fist 8-10 times after the pressure cuff has been inflated above systolic level. • Rapidly inflate the cuff • Raise the patient’s arm above heart level for several seconds- inflate the cuff above the systolic level while the arm is still elevated- lower the arm and proceed with the blood pressure measurement. • All of the above • A & C only

  24. The patient, a 25- year old white male, has just run up five flights of stairs- what action should be taken? • Have the patient rest 5 minutes and then proceed with measurement • Wait until pulse has returned to normal before measuring blood pressure • Have patient return in 30 minutes for blood pressure check- advise the patient not to do any exercise or other strenuous activity before returning.

  25. To avoid incorrectly assessing the systolic blood pressure due to the auscultatory gap, the auscultatory-palpatory technique of blood pressure measurement should always be used. • True • False

  26. A diagnosis of hypertension (high blood pressure) cannot be made from one blood pressure reading • True • False

  27. A high diastolic blood pressure indicates a greater risk for complications (in most people, especially those over age 55) than a high systolic blood pressure. • True • False

  28. You shouldn’t have your blood pressure checked immediately after smoking. • True • False

  29. If the initial blood pressure reading is greater than or equal to 120/80, two or more readings should be taken. • True • False

  30. Race: Whites are at greater risk than Blacks for developing hypertension • True • False

  31. Family History: Studies show that the tendency to develop hypertension runs in families. • True • False

  32. Diabetes: Persons with diabetes are at a greater risk for developing hypertension. • True • False

  33. Oral Contraceptives: The “pill” raises the blood pressure in almost all of the women who take it. • True • False

  34. Stress: Prolonged and intense stress can contribute to the development of hypertension. • True • False

  35. Alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption may be involved with the development of hypertension • True • False