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DEVELOPED BY: UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO http:// www.radon.utoledo.edu /. FUNDED BY: OHIO DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. MANAGEMENT OF INDOOR RADON IN THE STATE OF OHIO. Ashok Kumar Charanya Varadarajan Suman Maroju Department of Civil Engineering University of Toledo. April 2007.

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slide1

DEVELOPED BY:

UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO

http://www.radon.utoledo.edu/

FUNDED BY:

OHIO DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

MANAGEMENT OF INDOOR RADON IN THE STATE OF OHIO

Ashok Kumar

Charanya Varadarajan

Suman Maroju

Department of Civil Engineering

University of Toledo

April 2007

different sections of ohio information web site
Different Sections of Ohio Information Web Site
  • Information on Radon
  • Health Risks
  • Preventive Measures
  • Radon Concentrations Across Ohio
        • Homes
        • Schools
        • Water
        • Mitigation
  • Testing Procedures
  • Geology of Radon
  • Other sources of Information
  • Lists of Radon Professionals
  • F.A.Q
ohio radon information system
HOME

SCHOOL

MITIGATION

TESTER

WATER

OHIO RADON INFORMATION SYSTEM
objective
OBJECTIVE
  • Store information on the home, school, water, and mitigation radon tests carried out in Ohio
  • Analyze the radon data to yield specific results for better management and mitigation of radon in Ohio homes and schools
  • Determine the removal efficiencies of the mitigation systems
  • Provide to the public a radon information system on the web
database
DATABASE
  • Licensed contractors perform the tests and submit the test details to the Ohio Department of Health (ODH)
  • Processed data stored in MS Access
  • Queries built in MS access are used for the analysis of the data
  • Reports of the analysis are submitted to the ODH every quarter
homes database
HOMES DATABASE
  • The most extensive database.
  • Built as SQL Server 7.0/MS Access database.
  • Data were obtained from government agencies, university researchers, and commercial testing companies.
  • The many data sets were combined to produce a unified database that includes 1500 zip code areas in Ohio.
  • Vast majority of the data (something over 95 percent) comes from houses where the tests were done by the homeowners using either charcoal canisters or alpha-track detectors.
  • About 93 percent of the data were sent on computer disks and so were transferred without transcription errors.
statistics for the state of ohio
Statistics for the State of Ohio

Unit- pCi/l

Total Number of Records – 139,152

results
Results
  • Total number of counties in Ohio - 88
  • Number of counties having GM indoor radon concentration more than 4.0 pCi/l is 23 (was 29 in 2006 – see Table 1)
  • Licking is the only county with GM of radon concentration greater than 8 pCi/l

Table 1: Counties currently below 4pCi/l

results11
Results

Zip codes in the database – 1500

Incorrect zip codes – 243

Correct zip codes - 1257

Number of zip codes having geometric mean indoor radon concentration more than 4.0 pCi/l - 442

slide14
Individual County Maps Showing Variation

among Zip Codes

Unavailability of

Complete zip code

shapefile

school database
SCHOOL DATABASE
  • SHORT-Term and LONG-Term test data
  • 865 Radon School Tests
  • Complete Information - 852
  • Schools long term tested – 154
slide17

The ODH School

Testing

Program has covered 865 schools in 41 counties

summary of results
Total number of counties tested -42

Total number of schools tested (Short term) - 865 (852 complete)

Total number of schools showing maximum radon concentration in any single room greater than 4 pCi/l - 259

Total number of rooms tested - 28649

Total number of rooms having radon concentration greater than or equal to action level of 4 pCi/l -1694

Summary of Results

Approximately 30.5% of schools in Ohio have a potential for at least one room in excess of the USEPA action level (4 pCi/l) compared to 19.3% nationwide.

mitigation database
MITIGATION DATABASE

17, 089 records

15 different types of systems have been reported by the contractors

slide25

Number of Records with Pre-Mitigation Level between 4 pCi/l and 20 pCi/l for Years 2001 to 2006

Number of Records with % Removal Less Than 50 For Years 2001 to 2006

average removal efficiency by each type of system 2001
Average Removal Efficiency by Each Type of System (2001)

Note: Blue identifies the best performing system; Grey identifies the second best performing system

average removal efficiency by each type of system 2003
Average Removal Efficiency by Each Type of System (2003)

Note: Blue identifies the best performing system; Grey identifies the second best performing system

average removal efficiency by each type of system 2004
Average Removal Efficiency by Each Type of System (2004)

Note: Blue identifies the best performing system; Grey identifies the second best performing system

average removal efficiency by each type of system 2005
Average Removal Efficiency by Each Type of System (2005)

Note: Blue identifies the best performing system; Grey identifies the second best performing system

slide31

Average Removal Efficiency by Each Type of System (2006)

Among the 40 different combinations of mitigation systems, these are some of the best performing systems. The other systems and combinations have very few records to substantiate the high removal efficiency.

Note: Blue identifies the best performing system; Grey identifies the second best performing system

slide32
Variation of Removal Efficiency with Pre- and Post Mitigation Level for Best Performing System for the Year 2003
slide33

Variation of Removal Efficiency with Pre- and Post-Mitigation Level for Best Performing System for the Year 2004

slide34

Variation of Removal Efficiency with Pre- and Post-Mitigation Level for Best Performing System for the Year 2005

slide35

Variation of Removal Efficiency with Pre- and Post-Mitigation Level for Best Performing System for the Year 2006

summary
Summary
  • Most efficient system in Ohio for the year 2001 -2006 is Sub-slab Depressurization System
  • Efficiency is a function of pre-mitigation and post-mitigation levels
  • Efficiency of the mitigation systems decreases with decrease in pre-mitigation level as concentrations cannot be reduced below a certain level
  • Efficiency of the mitigation system decreases with increase in the post-mitigation level
testers database
TESTERS DATABASE

Stores the information on the radon tests

Hard copy of the test information submitted to ODH is computerized at the UT and is stored in a tabular form for easy access and analyses

Data is queried in MS Access to arrive at key statistics for radon measurements in all zip code areas and counties

Arithmetic mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, variance, maximum and minimum observed concentrations are calculated

44,864 records in the database

zip codes with gm of radon concentration greater than 4 pci l
Zip codes with GM of radon concentration greater than 4 pCi/l

Number of Zip codes greater than 4 pCi/l – 254

Number of Zip codes greater than 8 pCi/l – 60

Number of Counties greater than 4 pCi/l – 21

Number of Zip codes greater than 8 pCi/l – 2

Number of zip codes tested - 853

Number of counties tested - 84

water database
WATER DATABASE
  • Water database consists of two sets of controls - public water wells and private water wells.
  • Ohio EPA provided the information on public water wells.
  • Information on private water wells were synthesized from M.S. theses completed at Ohio Universities.
results43
Results
  • 65 wells of the 1065 private water supply data have concentrations over 1000 pCi/l
  • 28 in Logan County and 13 in Delaware
  • 7 wells have concentration over 3000 pCi/l
  • No public water supply system has concentration greater than 1500 pCi/l
conclusions
Conclusions
  • A successful integrated Ohio Radon Information System
  • The information helps is assessing the extent of radon problem
  • The best mitigation systems are determined
  • Website helps in creating awareness
comments
Comments
  • Informed of error in the county listing of some public water wells in the dataset
  • Updated the website with the newest radon statistics
  • Developed and posted on the web individual county maps showing the variation of radon in each zip code
slide46

To evaluate the best Interpolation technique for the radon concentrations data

  • To evaluate the radon concentrations for unmeasured zip code locations in Ohio using the best Interpolation technique

New Work-

GIS Interpolation Techniques for Radon Data

interpolation techniques
Interpolation Techniques
  • Kriging
  • Inverse Distance Weighting
  • Radial Basis Function
  • Local Polynomial Interpolation
  • Global Polynomial Interpolation
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Ohio Department of Health/ USEPA
  • Dr. Jim Harrell and Dr. Andrew Heydinger (University of Toledo)
  • Graduate students
  • Staff members of the ODH