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Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning. Surveying. Summer Semester 2009/2010. Introduction. Lecture 2. Content. Definitions of Surveying and Surveyor Figure of Earth Types of Surveying Units of Measurement Scale of Surveys. Definitions. Surveying

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slide1

Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning

Surveying

Summer Semester 2009/2010

Introduction

Lecture 2

slide2

Content

  • Definitions of Surveying and Surveyor
  • Figure of Earth
  • Types of Surveying
  • Units of Measurement
  • Scale of Surveys
slide3

Definitions

  • Surveying
    • Art and science of making and analyzing measurements made on, above or below the surface of the earth, and the processing of these measurements into some positional formsuch as maps and coordinates. It also includes the opposite establishment of positions on earth that previously located on a plan or a map.
slide4

Definitions

  • Surveyor
    • A professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to practice the science of surveying.
slide5

Definitions

  • Surveyor can be enrolled within the following practices:
    • Determination of size and shape of any part of earth surface.
    • Positioning of objects in space.
    • Determination of boundaries.
    • Measurement of natural resources
    • Value Assessment
    • Estimation of Construction Costs
    • Production of Plans, maps and charts
slide8

Geoid System

  • The following system is used for reference:
    • For areas > 500 km2 Ellipsoid
      • a = 6378135 m
      • b = 6356750.5 m
    • 50 km2 < Area < 500 km2 Sphere

R = 6372200 m

    • Area < 50 km2 Plane
slide9

Types of Surveying

  • Size of Surveying:
      • Geodetic Surveying
      • Plane Surveying
  • Positioning of objects in space.
      • Ground Surveying
      • Remote Surveying
slide10

Types of Surveying

  • Purpose of Surveying:
      • Land Surveying
      • Topographic Surveying
      • Hydrographic Surveying
      • Route Surveying
      • Construction Surveying
      • Mine Surveying
slide11

Units of Measurement

  • Length:
      • English System inch (in “), foot (ft ‘), Yard (yd)
      • Metric System cm, m, km
      • 1 foot = 12 inches
      • 1 yard = 3 ft
      • 1 mile = 5280 ft
      • 1 inch = 2.54 cm
      • 1 ft = 30.48 cm = 0.3048 m
  • Area:
      • English 1 acre = 43560 ft
      • Metric 1 donum = 1000 m2
      • 1 hectare = 10000 m2
      • 1 km2 = 1,000,000 m2
slide12

Units of Measurement

  • Angles:
      • Sexagesimal
      • circle is divided into 360°, each is divided into 60 min (΄), each is divided into 60 seconds (΄΄)
      • 213° 24΄ 47΄΄
slide13

Units of Measurement

  • Decimal or Centisimal
  • circle is divided into 400 equal grads (g), each grade is divided into 100 simal minutes (c), each is divided into 100 centisimal (cc)
  • 128g 60c 47cc
slide14

Units of Measurement

  • The Radian System
  • The radian is defined as: the central angle opposite to a circular arc whose length is equal to its radius.
  • The whole circle has an opposing angle 2π
slide15

Solving Problem

Convert the angle 213° 24΄ 47΄΄ into Decimal and Radian systems.

Solution:

slide16

Solving Problem

Convert the angle 115g 2c 14cc into Sexagesimal system.

Solution:

slide17

Scale of Surveys

  • Architectural Works, Building Works, Location Drawings:
      • 1/50, 1/100, 1/200
  • Site Plans, civil engineering works:
      • 1/500, 1/1000, 1/1250, 1/2000, 1/2500
  • Town surveys, highway surveys:
      • 1/1250, 1/2000, 1/2500, 1/5000, 1/10000, 1/20000, 1/50000
  • Mapping:
      • 1/25000, 1/50000, 1/100000, 1/200000, 1/500000, 1/1000000