Introduction

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# Introduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning. Surveying. Summer Semester 2009/2010. Introduction. Lecture 2. Content. Definitions of Surveying and Surveyor Figure of Earth Types of Surveying Units of Measurement Scale of Surveys. Definitions. Surveying

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Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning

Surveying

Summer Semester 2009/2010

Introduction

Lecture 2

Content

• Definitions of Surveying and Surveyor
• Figure of Earth
• Types of Surveying
• Units of Measurement
• Scale of Surveys

Definitions

• Surveying
• Art and science of making and analyzing measurements made on, above or below the surface of the earth, and the processing of these measurements into some positional formsuch as maps and coordinates. It also includes the opposite establishment of positions on earth that previously located on a plan or a map.

Definitions

• Surveyor
• A professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to practice the science of surveying.

Definitions

• Surveyor can be enrolled within the following practices:
• Determination of size and shape of any part of earth surface.
• Positioning of objects in space.
• Determination of boundaries.
• Measurement of natural resources
• Value Assessment
• Estimation of Construction Costs
• Production of Plans, maps and charts

Geoid System

• The following system is used for reference:
• For areas > 500 km2 Ellipsoid
• a = 6378135 m
• b = 6356750.5 m
• 50 km2 < Area < 500 km2 Sphere

R = 6372200 m

• Area < 50 km2 Plane

Types of Surveying

• Size of Surveying:
• Geodetic Surveying
• Plane Surveying
• Positioning of objects in space.
• Ground Surveying
• Remote Surveying

Types of Surveying

• Purpose of Surveying:
• Land Surveying
• Topographic Surveying
• Hydrographic Surveying
• Route Surveying
• Construction Surveying
• Mine Surveying

Units of Measurement

• Length:
• English System inch (in “), foot (ft ‘), Yard (yd)
• Metric System cm, m, km
• 1 foot = 12 inches
• 1 yard = 3 ft
• 1 mile = 5280 ft
• 1 inch = 2.54 cm
• 1 ft = 30.48 cm = 0.3048 m
• Area:
• English 1 acre = 43560 ft
• Metric 1 donum = 1000 m2
• 1 hectare = 10000 m2
• 1 km2 = 1,000,000 m2

Units of Measurement

• Angles:
• Sexagesimal
• circle is divided into 360°, each is divided into 60 min (΄), each is divided into 60 seconds (΄΄)
• 213° 24΄ 47΄΄

Units of Measurement

• Decimal or Centisimal
• circle is divided into 400 equal grads (g), each grade is divided into 100 simal minutes (c), each is divided into 100 centisimal (cc)
• 128g 60c 47cc

Units of Measurement

• The radian is defined as: the central angle opposite to a circular arc whose length is equal to its radius.
• The whole circle has an opposing angle 2π

Solving Problem

Convert the angle 213° 24΄ 47΄΄ into Decimal and Radian systems.

Solution:

Solving Problem

Convert the angle 115g 2c 14cc into Sexagesimal system.

Solution:

Scale of Surveys

• Architectural Works, Building Works, Location Drawings:
• 1/50, 1/100, 1/200
• Site Plans, civil engineering works:
• 1/500, 1/1000, 1/1250, 1/2000, 1/2500
• Town surveys, highway surveys:
• 1/1250, 1/2000, 1/2500, 1/5000, 1/10000, 1/20000, 1/50000
• Mapping:
• 1/25000, 1/50000, 1/100000, 1/200000, 1/500000, 1/1000000