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Overview of Selling. Learning Objectives. Define personal selling and describe its unique characteristics as a marketing communications tool.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives

Define personal selling and describe its unique characteristics as a marketing communications tool.

Distinguish between transaction-focused traditional selling and trust-based relationship selling, with the latter focusing on customer value and sales dialogue.

Describe the evolution of personal selling from ancient times to the modern era.







learning objectives3
Learning Objectives

Explain the contributions of personal selling to society, business firms, and customers.

Discuss five alternative approaches to selling.

Describe the three primary roles fulfilled by consultative salespeople.

Understand the sales process as a series of interrelated steps.









key thoughts
Key Thoughts
  • Selling has been around since there were goods to trade.
  • The role of the salesperson has evolved . . . becoming more professional.
  • Salespeople play an important role in creating and maintaining a strong economy.
  • Salespeople are solution providers.
  • Sales is a process focusingon initiating, developing, and enhancing customer relationships.
personal selling defined
Personal Selling – Defined

An important part of marketing that relies heavily on interpersonal interactions between buyers and sellers to initiate, develop, and enhance customer relationships.

trust based relationship selling
Trust-Based Relationship Selling

Requires that salespeople earn customer trust and that their selling strategy meets customer needs and contributes to the creation, communication, and delivery of customer value.

customer value
Customer Value

The customer’s perception of what they get for what they have to give up.

importance of sales dialogue
Importance of Sales Dialogue

Sales Dialogue: business conversation between buyers& sellers thatoccur as salespeople attemptto initiate, develop, & enhance customer relationships.

Allows for more thorough qualifying.

Demonstrates sincere interest in the prospective customer.

Helps Determine prospective customer’s unique needs.

Ensures meaningful presentation of value-added solutions.

Promotes opencommunication andsatisfaction feedback.

evolution of personal selling
Evolution of Personal Selling

Peddlers selling door to door . . . served as intermediaries

Selling function became more structured






War andDepression


Business organizations employed salespeople

Selling function becoming more professional

evolution of personal selling the past several decades
Evolution of Personal Selling (The past several decades)

From reliance on

Canned Sales Presentation: sales presentations that include scripted sales calls, memorized presentations, and automated presentations.

To greater focus on

Sales Professionalism: a customer-oriented approach that uses truthful, non-manipulative tactics to satisfy the long-term needs of both the customer and the selling firm.

is sales a profession
Is Sales a Profession?
  • Knowledge base
  • Contribution to Society
  • Defined Culture and Organization
  • Professional skills
  • Autonomy
  • Code of Ethics
contributions of personal selling salespeople and the employing firm
Salespeople generate revenue.

Salespeople provide market research and customer feedback.

Salespeople become future leaders in the organization.

Contributions of Personal Selling:Salespeople and the Employing Firm
contributions of personal selling salespeople and the customer
Contributions of Personal Selling:Salespeople and the Customer
  • Salespeople provide solutions to problems.
  • Salespeople provide expertise and serve as information resources.
  • Salespeople serve as advocates for the customer when dealing with the selling organization.
alternative personal selling approaches
AlternativePersonal Selling Approaches
  • Stimulus Response Selling
  • Mental States Selling
  • Need Satisfaction Selling
  • Problem Solving Selling
  • Consultative Selling

Adaptive Selling: the ability of a salesperson to alter his/her sales messages and behaviors during a sales presentation or as they encounter different sales situations and different customers.

stimulus response selling
Stimulus Response Selling

Simple indesign; assumes conditionedresponse improves likelihood of success; a risky and unreliable strategy.

mental states selling
Mental States Selling

Assumes buyercan be led through mental states; promotes one-way communication; a risky and unreliable strategy.

need satisfaction selling
Need Satisfaction Selling

Interact with buyer to determine existing needs; present solutions to needs; solutions limited to seller’s products.

problem solving selling
Problem Solving Selling

Interact with buyer to determine existing and potential needs; present multiple solutions not limited to seller’s products.

consultative selling
Consultative Selling

The process of helping customers reach their strategic goals by using the products, services, and expertise of the selling organization.

the sales process an overview

Selling Foundations

Developing Customer


Initiating Customer


Enhancing Customer Relationships

Selling Strategy

The Sales Process: An Overview
the sales process selling foundations

Be Trustworthy

Behave Ethically

Understand Buyer Behavior

Possess Excellent Communication Skills

The Sales Process: Selling Foundations

In order to be successful in today’s global business environment, salespeople must have a solid relationship building foundation. They must:

the sales process selling strategy

Each Sales Call


Each strategy is related to the other

Their Sales Territories

The Sales Process: Selling Strategy

In order to be successful in today’s global business environment, salespeople must also think and act strategically. The must develop strategies for:

the sales process

Developing Customer


Initiating Customer


Enhancing Customer Relationships

Adding Value through Follow-up, Self-leadership, and Teamwork

  • Prospecting
  • Preapproach
  • Presentation Planning
  • Approaching the Customer
  • Sales Presentation Delivery
  • Earning Customer Commitment
The Sales Process
sales careers

Sales Careers

Module One – Appendix

characteristics of sales careers
Characteristics of Sales Careers
  • Job Security
  • Advancement Opportunities
  • Immediate Feedback
  • Prestige
  • Job Variety
  • Independence
  • Compensation
job security
Job Security

Selling skills are readily transferable from industry to industry….and the need for good salespeople will never go away.

Accordingly, good salespeople have opportunities within and across industries.

advancement opportunities
Advancement Opportunities

Salespeople are familiar with the market, the customers, and the products. In addition, good salespeople have great interpersonal skills.

These attributes help to make salespeople good candidates for leadership in the organization.

immediate feedback prestige
Immediate Feedback & Prestige

Customer responses to the salesperson’s efforts are typically immediate…providing the salesperson performance feedback and the opportunity to adjust “on the fly.”

The role of the professional salesperson is not well known by the general public and is eclipsed by negative stereo types . . . but that is slowly changing.

job variety and independence
Job Variety and Independence

Professional selling is rarely the same from day-to-day. The word “routine” doesn’t apply.

Usually, salespeople are accountable for attaining certain goals…how they get there is up to them. There is no “time-clock” and no taskmaster.


Good salespeople usually earn an income well above the national average. Many salespeople earn six figure incomes (or higher).

Income is most often tied directly to performance.

characteristics of successful salespeople
Characteristics of Successful Salespeople
  • Empathy
  • Ego Drive
  • Ego Strength
  • Interpersonal Communication Skills
  • Enthusiasm