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Leipzig Graduate School for Clouds, Aerosol & Radiation: Mineral Dust. A. Macke, IfT Leipzig presented by H. Herrmann, IfT Leipzig. Berlin, 23.09.2011. Leipzig Graduate School. A Leibniz Graduate School on Atmospheric Research

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Leipzig graduate school for clouds aerosol radiation mineral dust

Leipzig Graduate School for Clouds, Aerosol & Radiation:

Mineral Dust

A. Macke, IfT Leipzig

presentedby H. Herrmann, IfT Leipzig

Berlin, 23.09.2011

Leipzig graduate school
Leipzig Graduate School

  • A Leibniz Graduate School on Atmospheric Research

  • Integratingexpertise in atmosphericresearch in Leipzig atthe University andthe IfT togetherwith University expertisefromphysicsandchemistry

  • University partners:

    • Leipzig Meteorology (LIM)

    • Profs. Haase and Grundmann (PhysicsFaculty)

    • Prof. Abel (Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Faculty)

  • Leibniz Partner:

    • IfT Leipzig with all itsthreedepartments

  • Combiningstructuredandcross-compartimentalPh.D. educationwithresearchat a frontlineatmosphericsciencestopic – mineraldust

  • The research why care about mineral dust
    The research: Why care about mineral dust ?

    • Atmosphere

      • radiation

      • watercycle

      • chemistry

    • Health

      • airquality, bacteria

    • Economy

      • transportation

      • solar energy

    • Climate

      • desertification

    • Fertilization

      • ocean & land

    The leipzig graduate school
    The Leipzig Graduate School


    Leipzig University Research Groups

    Solid State Physics

    (Haase, Grundmann)

    Microwave Remote Sensing


    Clouds &






    Global Modelling


    IfT Research Groups

    Regional Modelling


    Vis & IR Remote

    Sensing (Ansmann,Deneke)




    Clouds &



    Multiphase Chemistry



    Dust Surface Chemistry

    Dust and Ice Formation

    Cloud and Dust Particle Interaction

    Non-spherical Dust

    Absorbing Dust

    Polarization in radiative transfer in modeling and observations
    Polarization in radiative transfer in modeling and observations

    • Non-spherical (mineral dust, vulcanic ash, ice crystals, ...) particles polarize light in a characteristic manner

    • Active/passive polarized remote sensing offers new and largely unexplored detection possibilities

    • Objectives

      • Heterogeneous ice formation (mandatory condition for precipitation in mid latitudes)

      • determine volcanic ash concentration

      • determine the effect of Saharan mineral dust on cloud formation and microphysics over the Atlantic Ocean

      • distinguish mineral dust from biomass burning and other aerosols

    Polarization lidar

    4 Feb 2008, SAMUM 2, Cape Verde


    liquid water0.0




    aerosol 0.02

    marine particles0.01

    Time (UTC = Local Time)

    Leipzig graduate school for clouds aerosol radiation mineral dust

    Absorbing Aerosols: Effect on atmospheric dynamics and cloud properties

    • Absorbing aerosol (soot, mineral dust) affects climate by heating the atmosphere, changing cloudiness and circulation

    • Net effect strongly depends on vertical placement of aerosol layers; it is expected to be warming but offsetting effects exist

    • Objectives

      • Quantification of aerosol absorption (including mineral dust as natural background) in climate models

      • Characterization of altitude and placement of aerosol layers with respect to clouds

      • Assessment of climate effects by aerosol-climate modeling

    Satellite data analysis a train anthropogenic absorbing aerosol forcing
    Satellite propertiesdataanalysis (A-Train): Anthropogenicabsorbingaerosolforcing


    Albedo reduction


    Seasonal mean TOA absorption effect

    Peters, Quaas, Bellouin, ACP 2011


    regional to global distribution

    Indirect aerosol effect diagnostics from combination of ground and satellite data
    Indirect propertiesaerosol effect: diagnostics from combination of ground and satellite data

    • Amount in type of aerosol particles effect size and concentration of cloud droplets and thus cloud brightness (first indirect aerosol effect, Twomey effect)

    • Passive satellite measurements of cloud particles and cloud brightness very indirect and uncertain

    • Increasing load of mineral particles from various sources

    • Objectives

      • Combine active and passive ground and satellite based observations to more accurately determine the indirect aerosol effect

      • Identify and analyze situations with mineral dust advection over measurement site Leipzig

    Cloud radiative effects
    Cloud propertiesradiativeeffects



    ship tracks

    Heterogeneous chemistry at modified mineral dust surfaces
    Heterogeneous chemistry propertiesat (modified) mineral dust surfaces

    • Mineral Dust is an active player in atmospheric composition change

    • Trace gases can be taken up at the surface and undergo chemical change

    • Key components of mineral dust are suspected to be photocatalysts: surface-bound OH available (!)

    • Objectives

      • Investigate uptake of key atmospheric tracegases (NOx, SO2, Organics) und realistic conditions (T, RH)

      • Study chemical processing directly

      • Deliver key process parameters (Reaction rates, uptake and mass accommodation coefficients)

    Knudsen cell ift chemistry
    Knudsen Cell – IfT Chemistry properties

    Pressure: 10-5bis 10-3 mbar = mean free pathlength of molecules is bigger than the cell dimension = there are mainly gas-surface collisions rather than gas-gas collisions

    Determination of (reactive) uptake-coefficients γ

    Rate constants

    Detection limit: 1010molec cm-3

    T Range: -140 bis 425 °C


    Gas inlet


    Sample holder


    Leipzig graduate school for clouds aerosol radiation mineral dust
    Physical Chemistry – Abel: propertiesDetectionandchemicalinvestigationoftroposphericparticlesandofreactionsneartheirinterfaces

    • AFM on mineralparticles, togetherwithlocal Raman spektroscopy (TERS). Withthismethod, chemicalconversions on nano-particles (and on nano-particlescoatedwithice) canbeinvestigated

    • Röntgen microscopyat BESSY

    • Photoelectronspektroscopy(ESCA) tofollowreactions in a time-resovedmanner on wetmineralnanoparticlesembeddedinto a microwaterjet (forthestudyofreactionsnearthewater-interface) or on solid interfacesandsurfaces.

    • Measuringthekineticsofchemicalreactionswith/withoutthepresenceofmineralicnanoparticlesby time-resolvedspectrocopicmethod in a Laval nozzleexperiment (alternativelybydispersionbyultrasound)

    Mass spectrometry imaging msi und chemische analyse von nanoteilchen
    Mass propertiesSpectrometry Imaging (MSI) und chemische Analyse von Nanoteilchen

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation and solid state physics
    Heterogeneous ice nucleation propertiesand solid state physics

    • Heterogeneous ice nucleation at mineral dust particles is one of the most important ice formation processes in the atmosphere

    • Heterogeneous ice formation not well understood because

      • of the insufficiency of existing techniques concerning the in-situ observation of ice nucleation processes

      • the distinction between ice and water on micrometer scales, as well as mass, and mass growth measurements are not possible

    • Objectives

      • Adapt a temporally high resolution Streak camera to directly infer ice formation and growth for individual drops and defined ice nuclei (dust particles)

      • Establish the nuclear magnetic resonance technique to determine ice mass

    Leipzig aerosol cloud interaction simulator lacis
    Leipzig Aerosol propertiesCloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS)

    NMR spectra for

    water and ice



    Leipzig graduate school cross cutting connectivity
    Leipzig Graduate School propertiescrosscutting / connectivity

    Leipzig graduate school structure
    Leipzig Graduate propertiesSchool Structure

    • Accompanying lectures from Master modules in Meteorology, Chemistry, Solid State Physics

    • Ring-lecture of supervisors on recent research results

    • Supervisor team for each PhD student

    • Active participation in relevant international conferences and summer schools

    • Workshops jointly with supervisor teams

    • PhD-only workshop, Supervisor-only workshop

    • Participation in IfT/LIM PhD seminar

    • 3 month visit at specified guest institutes

    • Participation in “Research Academy Leipzig”

    • Family- and dual-career friendly work conditions

    Leipzig long term perspectives
    Leipzig propertieslongtermperspectives

    • Establish the “Leipzig Center for Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation”

    • Open paths for joint University-Leibniz Research & Teaching

      • Share laboratories

      • Combine knowledge

      • create Leibniz/university supervisor teams

    • Follow-Up Graduate School on “Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation” with new focus

    • Basis for a Leibniz-Campus jointly with Leipzig University