Let’s preserve our identity: building a Portuguese – English glossary of typical Brazilian cooking ingredients Stella E. O. Tagnin (University of São Paulo) Elisa D. Teixeira (CoMET Project) UCCTS 2010 - Ormskirk, July 2010
To start with... How many Brazilian dishes or ingredients do you know? Name a few...
Brazilian cuisine • Thecuisine of a nationreflectsitsculture(s) • Brazil is a huge country, hasmanycuisines: regional / national • Braziliandishes - lessknownthanLatinAmerican • Portugueselanguagebarrier?
Brazilian cuisine • Brazilian cooking is arousing the interest of international chefs: “When people ask me which countries are the future of cooking, I always answer China and Brazil. I think the creative and joyful way of understanding life, combined with unique ingredients, will make Brazil an important country for the future of gastronomy” (Ferràn Adrià, in the preface of Por uma Gastronomia Brasileira, by Alex Atala, 2003 – our translation) “It’s high time for Brazil to also export its own recipes, and to disseminate Brazilian gastronomy throughout the world” (Paulo Salmucci, president of Abrasel, in NERY, 2006: 49 – our translation)
Brazilian cuisine • Tourism • one of Brazil’s main sources of income • World Cup 2014 • Olympic Games 2016 • Gastronomy • largest profit share within Tourism • a wealth of cooking schools and colleges has sprouted in the last few years • tourists must eat, but... menus are sometimes difficult to understand, when not scary
Pitiful translations • Menus • Filé bovino, fritas, vinagrete e farofa = Steak Bull, fries, vinegar and farofa • Suculentos espetinhos com farofa, fritas e vinagrete = Delicious sticks with mix flour, fries and vinegar • Filé ao molho Madeira, fritas, arroz à grega e salada verde = Steak with wood sauce, fries, greak rice and green salad • ...nobre corte de contrafilé = nobleman cuts of against filet • CREME RACHEL = IT CREMATES RACHEL machinetranslation?!
Inconsistency • Cachaça is translated in Embratur texts as: • cachaça (sugar(-)cane rum) • cachaça (typical Brazilian sugar cane rum) • cachaça (rum) • sugar cane spirit • sugar cane rum • Legal problem: • Itamaraty wants to create a special Customs category for cachaça taxes for rum are higher
Our Brazilian Cooking project Aim Methodology Glossary model
The CoMET Project • CoMET research group – since 1998 • Multiligual Corpus for Teaching and Translation • Postgraduate students and independent researchers • Department of English, University of São Paulo • Freely available corpora • CorTec – Technical Corpus • CorTrad – Parallel Translation Corpus • CoMAprend – Learner Corpus
The Brazilian Cooking project • Aim • Disseminate Brazilian gastronomic culture to the English-speaking world • Protect authentic Brazilian cuisine, its traditional ingredients, methods and dishes • Product • Portuguese-English Glossary of Brazilian Ingredients and Dishes • Freely available on the internet
The project • Target audience: all those who may need to write texts about Brazilian Cuisine • Language industry professionals: translators in general; food writers; journalists; language teachers • Food and beverage industry professionals: bilingual menu writers, caterers, etc. in restaurants, hotel chains, national and regional professional unions; • Food and beverage industry students and instructors • Official and non-official Tourismorganizations
The project • Three-levelentry: • Equivalent (or reproduction of the original term for lack of equivalent) • Ex: coco = coconut; vatapá = vatapá • Brief description, which may be inserted in a translated text or in menus • Ex:vatapá: Brazilian seafood stew with creamy coconut milk • Encyclopedic explanation, with photo, where possible, detailed description of the ingredient (physical and organoleptic characteristics, links to sites with more information) or dish (ingredients, method, links to recipes)
Corpus Linguistics Methodology • Corpus compilation • Collecting texts • Corpus balancing • Preparing texts – cleaning, organizing, tagging, renaming • Term extraction: Keywords • Writing the entries using e-Termos • Web-based collaborative platform for terminological products • Reviewing and publishing the final product
Corpus compilation • Initial plan • Collect texts by geographic regions • Concentrate on Northeast region – main tourist destination • Problem: overlapping recipes / ingredients • World Cup to be held in different cities. • Updated plan • Include recipes and descriptive texts for all regions • Comparable and parallel texts
Corpus compilation • Comparable corpus sofar • English • 8 digitalized U.S. cookbooks of Braziliancuisine • Textscollectedfromwebsites (such as: Foodlexicon; foodtv; recipehound; cookingBrazil) • Portuguese • 1 digitalizedBraziliancookbook • 1 digitalizedspecialedition of a food magazine • Textscollectedfromtheinternet • Parallel Corpus sofar • 2 digitalizedBrazilianbilingualcookbooks
Text Header <Header> <title> <tit> Peixada </tit> <filename> NEPBpeixada02_PO </filename> <collection> pratos </collection> </title> <sourceText> <language> PB </language> <mode> internet </mode> <author></author> <publisher> Brazil Channel </publisher> <pubPlace> http://www.brazilchannel.com.br/brasil/mostrar_receita.asp? nome=Peixada+com+Legumes+e+Pir%E3o&estado=Para%EDba</pubPlace> <pubdate> </pubdate> <accessDate> 04/abril/2007 </accessDate> <comments></comments> </sourceText> <researcher>Alva </researcher> </Header>
Text tagging <titrec> recipe title </titrec> <ingr> list of ingredients </ingr> <modfaz> description of preparation </modfaz> <class> additional information, such as: number of servings, type of dish, nutritional info, preparation time, cost, etc </class> <coment> comments by recipe author </coment>
Text tagging <titrec> Peixada com Legumes e Pirão </titrec> <ingr> INGREDIENTES: 1 kg peixe em posta Repolho e batatas cozidas Cebola, pimentão e tomate Colorau Alho Sal Cheiro verde Ovos cozidos 1/2 lata de creme de leite Azeite de oliva Água Óleo </ingr> <modFaz> Preparo: Temperar as postas com limão, sal, pimenta e alho. Refogar os temperos com óleo e um pouco de azeite de oliva. Juntar o peixe, o molho em que foi temperado e o repolho. Acrescentar água fervendo, um pouco de sal e colorau e deixar cozinhar. Quando o peixe estiver pronto juntar o creme de leite, as batatas e os ovos cozidos. Com uma parte do caldo fazer um pirão. </modFaz> <class> </class> <coment> </coment>
Term extraction • Keywords • Extracted comparing the study corpus with a general corpus of cooking recipes Brazilian cooking • Cooking corpus of 1.5 million words (Teixeira 2008) • CoMET/CorTec site: Cooking 2Corpus • WordList • Concordances
Concordance • Concordance • Each keyword may generate several entries for the Glossary • feijão (beans) • Ingredients: feijão carioca/carioquinha, feijão de corda, feijão mulatinho, feijão preto, feijão verde • Dishes: tutu de feijão, virado/viradinho de feijão, feijão tropeiro, etc.
Workflow • Keywords distributed among team members • Analysis of concordance lines for each keyword • Selection of terms • Insertion of terms in e-Termos • Collaborative writing of entries • Collaborative review of entries • Online publication of Glossary
Glossary building • e-Termos • http://www.etermos.ufscar.br/index.php • Free, collaborative platform for terminology extraction, glossary building and online publication • It comprises 6 modules: • automatic corpus compilation – not yet functional • analysis and support of corpus quality • automatic term extraction - WordList • ontology and term categorization • management of terminology database • online publication of glossary
Sample entry vatapá (s.m.) 1. vatapá; 2.Brazilian creamy seafood stew with coconut milk: 3. “a thick yellow or yellow-orange purée of dried smoked shrimp, ground peanuts and cashews, bread crumbs, ginger, malagueta peppers, coconut milk, and dendé palm oil. It is also a stuffing for the bean fritter called acarajé.” (PETERSON & PETERSON, 1995, p. 98). Recipe: http://southamericanfood.about.com/od/maincourses/r/vatapa.htm
Brazilian Cooking Project Team • Stella Esther Ortweiler Tagnin – coordinator • Leandro Henrique Mendonça de Oliveira – EMBRAPA (e-Termos developer) • Sabrina Matuda – master’s student • Rozane Rodrigues Rebechi – master’s student • Andréa Geroldo dos Santos – master’s student • Marlene Andreetto – master’s student • Elisa Duarte Teixeira – voluntary researcher • Alvamar H. C. Andrade Lamparelli – voluntary researcher • Josimeire Cristina Martins – voluntary researcher • Luciana Latarini Ginezi – voluntary researcher • Marlene Deboni – voluntary researcher • Carolina Zuppardo – voluntary researcher • Soraia Manzela – voluntary researcher
Thank you Stella : email@example.com Elisa: firstname.lastname@example.org Carmen Miranda art by Miriam Duarte (http://www.miriamduarte.com.br/)