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Introduction to Drugged Driving . What is a “Drug”?. Working Definition of “Drug: Any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely . 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.

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what is a drug
What is a “Drug”?
  • Working Definition of “Drug:
    • Any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely
2011 national survey on drug use and health national findings
2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings
  • 8.7% of the population aged 12 years or older were current illicit drug users
  • Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug
  • 6.7 million people were users of psychotherapeutic drugs taken non medically
  • Estimated 1.4 million persons were current Cocaine users
  • University of Tennessee found 40% of crash injured drivers had drugs other than alcohol in them
  • The Maryland Shock Trauma Center found nearly one third of crash injured drivers had recently used marijuana
what are drugs
What are Drugs ?
  • CNS Depressants
  • CNS Stimulants
  • Hallucinogens
  • Dissociative Anesthetics
  • Narcotic Analgesics
  • Inhalants
  • Cannibas
cns depressants
CNS Depressants
  • CNS depressants slow down the operations of the brain. They usually depress the heartbeat, blood pressure, respiration and many other processes controlled by the brain
  • Barbiturates
  • Non-Barbiturates
  • Anti-Anxiety Tranquilizers
  • Anti-Depressants
  • Muscle relaxants and many other drugs
  • Common Types:
    • Klonopine, Soma, Depakote
    • Rohypnol, Restorile, Zoloft
    • Xanax, Dilatin, Serazone
    • Wellbutrin, Zyprexa, Reglan
general indicators of cns depressant influence
General Indicators of CNS Depressant Influence
  • “Drunken” behavior and appearance
  • Uncoordinated
  • Drowsy
  • Sluggish
  • Disoriented
  • Thick, slurred speech
  • Pupil size usually normal (except that the drug Methaqualone and Soma  usually cause pupils to dilate)
cns stimulants
CNS Stimulants
  • Accelerate the heart rate, respiration and many other processes of the body
  • Two most widely abused kinds of CNS Stimulants are cocaine and methamphetamines
  • Common Types:
    • Ritalin, Adderall, Didrex
    • Kava, Ectasy, Sudafed Cold Medicines
general indicators of cns stimulant influence
General Indicators of CNS Stimulant Influence
  • Restlessness
  • Talkative
  • Excitation
  • Euphoria
  • Exaggerated reflexes
  • Loss of appetite
  • Anxiety
  • Grinding teeth
  • Redness of nasal area
  • Runny nose
  • Body tremors
  • Drugs that affect a person’s perceptions, sensations, thinking, self awareness, and emotions. All hallucinogens impair the user's ability to perceive the world as it really is.
  • Common Types:
    • Mushrooms, LSD, Spice
    • K2, Excretion from Colorado River toad,DXM
    • Ectasy, Ketamine,
  • Transposing of the senses
    • Sounds, for example, may be transposed into sights
    • Sights, for example, may be transposed into odors or sounds
general indicators of hallucinogen influence
General Indicators of Hallucinogen Influence
  • Hallucinations
  • Dazed appearance
  • Body tremors
  • Uncoordinated
  • Perspiring
  • Disorientation
  • Paranoia
  • Difficulty in speech
  • Nausea
  • Piloerection
dissociative anesthetics
Dissociative Anesthetics
  • Originally developed for use as an anesthetic, PCP is a powerful drug that in some ways acts like a depressant, in other ways like a stimulant, and in still other ways like an hallucinogen
  • Dissociative Anesthetics are powerful anesthetics. However, they also cause bizarre and sometimes violent behavior.
  • Dextromethorphan, DXM-Cough Suppressant
  • PCP
  • Ketamine
general indicators of dissociative anesthetic influence
General Indicators of Dissociative Anesthetic Influence
  • Warm to the touch
  • Perspiring
  • Blank stare
  • Repetitive speech
  • Incomplete verbal responses
  • Confused
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Possibly violent and combative
narcotic analgesics
Narcotic Analgesics
  • A large number of drugs that share three important characteristics
    • Relieve pain
    • Produce withdrawal signs and symptoms
    • Suppress the withdrawal signs and symptoms of chronic morphine administration
  • Common Types:
    • Heroin, Buprenex, Codeine
    • Tramadol, Methadone, Sublimaze
    • Fentanyl, Demerol, Morphine
general indicators of narcotic analgesic influence
General Indicators of Narcotic Analgesic Influence
  • “On the nod”
  • Droopy eyelids
  • Depressed reflexes
  • Dry mouth
  • Facial itching
  • Low, raspy speech
  • Fresh puncture marks may be evident
  • Some inhalants include psychoactive chemicals that produce a variety of effects. Others exert their major effect by blocking the passage of oxygen to the brain.
  • Breathable chemicals that produce mind-altering effects
  • Inhalants generally fall into one of three categories:
    • Volatile Solvent
    • Aerosol
    • Anesthetic Gas
  • Common Types:
    • Dust-off, paint, any aerosol spray,
  • Often referred to as “HUFFING”
general indicators of inhalant influence
General Indicators of Inhalant Influence
  • Disorientation
  • Slurred speech
  • Residue of substance on face, hands, clothing
  • Confusion
  • Possible nausea
  • Marijuana and other Cannabis products impair the attention process. Ability to perform divided attention tasks diminishes under the influence of Cannabis.
  • Marijuana
  • Hashish
  • Hash Oil
  • THC
  • Skywalker, Trainwreck
  • AK-47, Sour Bubble
general indicators of cannabis influence
General Indicators of Cannabis Influence
  • Marked reddening of the Conjunctivae
  • Body tremors
  • Odor of marijuana
  • Disoriented
  • Relaxed inhibitions
  • Difficulty in dividing attention
poly drug use
Poly Drug Use
  • Combination of any two or more of the drug categories.
  • any combination of drugs may act together in four general ways.
    • Null Effect -The combination of no action plus no action equals no action.
      • Null Effect: The combination of no action plus no action equals no action.
  • EXAMPLE OF NULL EFFECTS: CNS Stimulant and Narcotic Analgesic.
  • Neither drug causes nystagmus, there-fore you will not see nystagmus with this combination.
poly drug use1
Poly Drug Use
  • Overlapping - Each drug may affect the suspect in some different way. In combination, both effects may appear.
    • Overlapping Effect: Action plus no action equals action.
    • EXAMPLE OF OVERLAPPING EFFECTS: Dissociative Anesthetic and Narcotic Analgesic. Dissociative Anesthetic will enhance nystagmus, while a Narcotic Analgesic does not cause nystagmus. There-fore, you will see nystagmus.
  • Additive - The two drugs may independently produce some similar effects. In combination, these effects may be enhanced.
    • Additive Effect: Action plus the same action reinforces the action.
poly drug use2
Poly Drug Use
    • Additive Effect: Action plus the same action reinforces the action.
    • EXAMPLE OF ADDITIVE EFFECTS: Stimulants and Hallucinogens both cause pupil dilation. Pupils would be dilated.
  • Antagonistic - The two drugs may produce some effects that are exactly opposite. In combination, these effects may mask each other.
    • Antagonistic Effect: Action versus opposite action can’t predict the outcome.
    • EXAMPLE OF ANTAGONISTIC EFFECTS: A CNS Stimulant usually causes pupil dilation, a narcotic usually causes constriction. It is possible that someone who is simultaneously under the influence of a stimulant and a narcotic may have pupils that are nearly normal in size. It is also possible that the suspect's pupils may be dilated at one time, and then become constricted, as the effects of one drug diminish while the effects of the other increase.
how do i determine if a person is under the influence of drugs
How Do I Determine if a Person is under the influence of Drugs
  • Standardized Field Sobriety Instructor
  • Certified Drug Recognition Expert
  • Standardized Field Sobriety Test-3 test
    • Once determined alcohol is not intoxicant-DRE evaluation
    • DRE Evaluation
      • 12 Step evaluation that includes several different things
dre evaluation
DRE Evaluation
  • Step 1 - Breath Alcohol Test
  • Step 2 – Interview of Arresting Officer
  • Step 3 – Preliminary Examination
    • First Pulse
    • Initial Estimate of Pupil Size
    • Initial Angle of Onset
  • Step 4 – Eye Examination – HGN
        • Lack of Smooth Pursuit
        • Distinct and Sustained Nystagmus at Maximum Deviation
        • Angle of Onset
        • Vertical Nystagmus
        • Lack of Convergence
dre evaluation1
DRE Evaluation
  • Step 5 – Divided Attention Test

1. Romberg Balance 2. Walk and Turn

3. One Leg Stand 4. Finger to Nose

  • Step 6 – Vital Signs – Second Pulse
    • PULSE 60-90 b.p.m

120-140 – Systolic

70 – 90 - Diastolic


98.6 F +/- 1.0 F

dre evaluation2
DRE Evaluation
  • 7. Dark Room Checks
    • Pupil Size
      • Room Light – Avg 4.0 2.5-5.0
      • Near Total Darkness – Ang 6.5 5.0-8.5
      • Direct Light – Avg – 3.0 2.0-4.5
    • Ingestion Examination

Nasal Area Oral Cavity

  • 8. Check for Muscle Tone
  • 9. Check for Injection Sites –
    • Third Pulse
  • 10. Interrogation of Subject-Observations
  • 11. Opinion of Evaluator
  • 12. Toxicological Sample
how do drugs affect the body
How do drugs affect the body
  • Normal chemicals in body that reglate, temperature, blood pressure, brain activity and other body functions.
  • When a drug, which is not produced by the body, is taken, the body immediately begins to create endorphins to combat the “new” stranger invader into the body.