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Dr. Xiangyun Du Professor Department of Learning and Philosophy Aalborg University PowerPoint Presentation
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Dr. Xiangyun Du Professor Department of Learning and Philosophy Aalborg University

Dr. Xiangyun Du Professor Department of Learning and Philosophy Aalborg University

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Dr. Xiangyun Du Professor Department of Learning and Philosophy Aalborg University

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  1. Innovative Pedagogy and PBL-Inspired Teaching Experiments Dr. Xiangyun Du Professor Department of Learning and Philosophy Aalborg University

  2. PBL introduction PBL definitions Philosophy and theories Variation of practices Questions and Discussions

  3. What do you know about PBL so far? What are your PBL related experiences?

  4. PBL as a strategy for change: development and diversity of practice McMaster 1968 Maastricht 1972 Linkoping 1972 Roskilde 72 Aalborg 74 • Problem orientation • Interdisciplinarity • Exemplary learning • Participant directed • Group work • Problems as focus and stimulus for learning • Self directed learning • Student-centred and tutors as facilitators/guides • Team work 4

  5. What is/are PBL(s)? A learning method based on the principle of using problems as a starting point for the acquisition and integration of new knowledge. - H.S. Barrows 1982

  6. What is/are PBL(s)? PBL reflects the way people learn in real life; they simply get on with solving the problems life puts before them with whatever resources are to hand. (Biggs 2003)

  7. What is/are PBL(s)? Problem-based learning helps students to see that learning and life take place in contexts, contexts that affect the kinds of solutions that are available and possible. (Savin-Baden 2003)

  8. What is PBL? Problem based learning is a pedagogical strategy for posing significant, contextualised, real world situations, and providing resources, guidance and instruction to learners as they develop content knowledge and problem-solving skills(Mayo et. Al., 1993)

  9. What is PBL? • PBL is Student-Centred Learning • Where motivating and activating students is the prime concern • The point of departure for the learning process is an ill-structured real life problem

  10. Variation Ways of implementation Problem solving techniques in the lecture Problem Based Learning in subjects / at institutional level Project Based Learning in subjects / at institutional level Problem and Project Based Learning P3PBL P5PBL Play PBL Modes of practice Senario Case Transdisciplinary Intercultural projects Mega project Individual / team Online/ICT Based / Face to face

  11. Some who claim to be doing might not be Some are doing without realizing What is/are PBL(s)? What do people do…

  12. Teaching = Learning ?

  13. Teaching = learning? Yes, it’s actually true – you can get a degree by repeating everything the teacher says. ”We pretend that there is co-incidence between what is being taught and what is being learned” (Knud Illeriis, 1998)

  14. Teaching = Learning? “Teaching does not mean transferring knowledge but creating opportunities for …producing and constructing it.” (Paulo Freire) (Karl Smith, UMN)

  15. Learning – is it only about how brain works?

  16. Constructivist view on Learning Learning is not only a process of transferring knowledge to the students, who should not be passive receivers Too much learning directed towards curriculum that the student must learn (or rather memorize) Overweighed focus on assessment measurement of the knowledge students have memorized – but not ability to produce new knowledge or to use their knowledge in real settings Philosophy and theories related to PBL

  17. Constructivism on learning Knowledge and learning created by students – not given Learning and knowledge construction is facilitated by collaboration – dialogue, critical reviews, coordinating efforts. Knowledge and learning should be about construction, and not re-construction of knowledge Learning is about producing new knowledge, solutions, theories and methods.

  18. Learning in Communities of Practice Participation Informal Unintended Knowledge sharing

  19. Learning to become an engineer Social learning Integration of formal curriculum and informal learning Life Long Learning Original figure in Wenger 2004

  20. Active learning students learn (a survey report from Felder 1988): 10% of what they read 26% of what they hear 30% of what they see 50% of what they see and hear 70% of what they say 90% of what they say and do passive active

  21. Experiential learning - Kolb’s learning cycle Concrete Experience Active Experiment Reflective Observation Abstract conceptualisation Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experiences - David Kolb 1984

  22. Experiential learning – the Cowan loopy diagram on action Reflection for in Time

  23. Levels of understanding - Bloom Bloom Knowledge - memorize Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Surface learning Deeper learning

  24. A conceptualisation of PBL PBL can be conceptualised as three central dimensions or processes that are stretched between teacher and participant control: Problem – who defines and re-formulate? Work Process – who chooses theory, methods and ways of working? Solution – who owns the solution?

  25. Problem solving skills in the lecture Lectures Literature Questions Answers Seminars Diverse PBL practice

  26. Project Based Learning Subject 1 Project 1 Subject 2 Project 2 Moesby 2004

  27. Subject 1 Subject 2 Project Subject 1 Project Subject 3 Subject 2 Innovations Moesby 2004

  28. AAU PBL practice as an example

  29. Problem and Project Based Learning - An innovation of the Aalborg Model Study courses 7,5 ECTS 50%courses Projectcourses 7,5 ECTS One semester 50%project Project 15 ECTS Project examination Model from The Aalborg PBL model - Progress, Diversity and ChallengesAnette Kolmos, Flemming K. Fink & Lone Krogh 1 ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) = 30 working hours

  30. Lecture Courses and Project Work 50 % project work : a major assignment within a given subject-related framework determined for each semester. project related courses supporting the project work Evaluated as oral examinations based on the project report. mandatory courses relating to the overall academic profile of the curriculum. Evaluated through individual written or oral examinations. 25 % 25 %

  31. Problem oriented, Project based, Team work organized Theme - framework Each group 1-2 facilitator Problem Formulation + analysis Exam Problem Solving + Report writing in group Lectures Literature Group formation: (by students based on interest) Experiment Physical facilities for project work Companies Group size: 6-8 1st year 4-5 middle years, 1-3 later years Other experts

  32. Project management and planning

  33. Learning goals, Knowledge sharing, Collaboration, Peer learning

  34. Evaluation from Danish industry on graduates

  35. Employers judgement of innovation, IDA, 2008 (N=209) 36

  36. Overall assessment of Danish Engineering Institutions. IDA, 2008

  37. PBL – Regional development PBL AAU as a good example of linking students with the local economy (OECD 2007, Puukka and Marmolejo 2008) Students benefit from Gaining transferable skills and authentic work experiences University benefits from gaining feedback and access to instructive cases and ideas for research and teaching Improving graduate retention Higher rate on-time finishing ( AAU 87% v.s 38% others in DK) Lower drop-out rate (AAU lowest in DK) Improved interdisciplinary collaboration among teaching staff Enterprises benefit from A clearer picture of what the university stands for and how the students might fit in as prospective employees

  38. Please analyze the problems (using the six W- model) Group discussion 2 (Problem Analysis) What? Why? Problem Whom? Where? How? When? 39

  39. Presentation 3 What are ‘problems’ and what are ‘projects’ Examples of different practices of designing problems and projects

  40. Taxonomy PBL practice (Barrows 1986) Lecture-based cases: cases used to demonstrate the relevance of information provided by lectures Case-based lectures: cases are used to highlight material that will be covered in the subsequent lecture Case method: cases are studied in preparation for class discussion Modified case-based method: cases provide opportunities for deciding between a limited number of options Problem-based learning: cases are used in a problem simulation format that encourages free inquiry Closed loop, or problem-based learning: a reflective phase complements the problem-based format

  41. Problem Based Learning and Project Based Learning(Savin-Baden 2007)


  43. Types of projects – nature of problems The task project The discipline project The problem project Problem and Project in AAU PBL

  44. THE TASK PROJECT Problem Discipline An Example: In firm X they have a machine emitting too much noise. The task given is to measure the noise level, to calculate the necessary attenuation and find a silencer. • Considerableplanning and control by the supervisors • The problem and the subject as well as the methods are chosen beforehand • The educational objectives are easily controlled • More control

  45. THE DISCIPLINE PROJECT Discipline Problem An example: a description of the scientific objectives as using a digital signal processor and creating a filter. The student will then have to start by finding a problem where a filter is needed in the solution and it would be a good idea to use a digital signal processor. • disciplines and methods are chosen in advance • students identify and define a problem within the described disciplines • educational objectives are mostly formulated for each discipline • supervisor - a bit uncertain, however, the scientific field is described well

  46. THE PROBLEM PROJECT Problem Discipline An example: In firm X there is too much noise emitted in the production hall. Analyze the problem in order to find the noise sources and find solutions. • problems as the starting point • The problem will determine the choice of disciplines, theories and methods • educational objectives emphasises ability to analyse and methodological skills • The problem has to be chosen within a broader social and technical frame • a self-directed learning process • supervisor – challenging (can be part of the big research projects)

  47. DESIGN OF A PROJECT Starting a project Project proposals x Project Supporting courses x x x Theme Sub-theme

  48. Design of a Project Starting point Target x

  49. Design of a Project Starting point Target area x

  50. Diversity – discipline and group aspect ‘It is so exciting to work on this, we solve problems and we see things happen…’ - Students from EE ‘It is boring to only focus on technical things… I don’t want to become nerds by studying engineering. I want to work with technology in a creative way and to do something for people…’ - Students from A&D