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Teaching Basic Living Skills, Food Preparation, Home Management, Recreation and Leisure Activities. SPE575 / ECC Fall 2006 Cynthia A. Carter. News Flash: Current Research and Theories on Basic Daily Living Skills.
Teaching Basic Living Skills, Food Preparation, Home Management, Recreation and Leisure Activities SPE575 / ECC Fall 2006 Cynthia A. Carter
News Flash: Current Research and Theories on Basic Daily Living Skills • Even in the 21st Century, our society still have those preconceived notions regarding the proficiency of blind people. (Before I became a CTVI, I was one of those people) • In an article on the TSBVI website, it was noted that a reporter ask a prominent blind woman this question, “What is it that blind people would want from society?” The woman replied, “The opportunity to be equal and the right to be different.”
Daily Living Skills for the Blind & Visually Impaired • This area of the expanded core curriculum is often referred to as "daily living skills." It consists of all the tasks and functions persons perform, in accordance with their abilities, in order to lead lives as independently as possible. • *These curricular needs are varied, as they include skills in personal hygiene, food preparation, money management, time monitoring, organization, etc. Some independent living skills are addressed in the existing core curriculum, but they often are introduced as splinter skills, appearing in learning material, disappearing, and then re-appearing. This approach will not adequately prepare blind and visually impaired students for adult life.
Theories/Research on Core Curriculum of The Blind and Visually Impaired • Historically, many educators behaved as though they did not believe that blind and visually impaired students had …”the right to be different.” The integration (soon to be called mainstreaming, then “inclusion) of blind students into regular classrooms in great numbers, beginning in the 1950s, brought with it an era of belief that the only need a visually impaired students had was adapted academic material so that he/she could learn in the regular classroom. (No concern for expanded core curriculum) • Therefore, early efforts to include visually impaired students in regular classrooms sometimes attempted to provide “…the opportunity to be equal…” without recognizing the student’s “…right (and need) to be different…” • In the field of education then the move from separation to integration is evident. Educational provisions for blind children, the administration of these educational provisions, and teacher preparation, all moved from special or separated arrangements to integrated ones. This move has been consistently spearheaded and supported by legislation…”. (Lowenfeld, 1975, p.117)
Theories of Daily Living Skills for the Blind & Visually Impaired • *Traditional classes in home economics and family life are not enough to meet the learning needs of most visually impaired students, since they assume a basic level of knowledge, acquired incidentally through vision. • *The skills and knowledge that sighted students acquire by casually and incidentally observing and interacting with their environment are often difficult, if not impossible, for blind and visually impaired students to learn without direct, sequential instruction by knowledgeable persons.
Most Current - Best Practices * • Building Relationship • Establish a Friends Club –Utilize formal and informal activities within a semi formal structure to promote and increase social interaction and recreation while increasing daily living skills. (Outreach TSBVI) • According to Phil Hatlen (TSBVI) one of the bests practices for teachers in this field is to assess every area of the ECC. This assessment helps to discover area of strengths and weaknesses. This will give VI’s and idea which areas of the ECC to begin with. • Best Practice- Share the Responsibility. During observational visits with students and consultations with teachers it is important to look for those ECC areas. Be aware that some needs are more obvious than others. Teachers and parents are two of the best resources in finding out the child’s core needs. (My opinion)
Practical Suggestions & Demonstrations & Case Studies & Materials • Practical Suggestions • Use these helpful Resources; • DARS/DBS • Education Service Centers (Daily Living) • TSBVI (Summer Camps, Weekend Visits) • Case Study • The Core Curriculum for the Blind consist of both regular curriculum and expanded curriculum designed to compensate for the lack of learning experiences. (National Agenda (Hatlen & Styker 1996)
Demonstration • Demonstrations: Blind Boys Can Cook Too……- • A high school Jr. with 20/400 OU (legally blind) best correction (enrolled in cooking class) • Training in home living was provided to the assistant and the student by ESC. • Measuring cups, spoons and oven was marked by VI Teacher using puff paint. • Instructions on cutting and slicing and finger placing was provided by ESC home living instructor. • Hands free hanging Magnifier was provided for student use when using cutting board and measuring ingredients • Yo Yo Magic – Elementary Age Student • Teacher created a lesson plan that would incorporate teaching this young student how to use a yo-yo • Once the student was able to manipulate the yo-yo on his own, • The teacher allowed the student to take the yo-yo to recess for leisure play; it was an instant hit with the other sighted peers and opened the door for social skills as well as recreational leisure pleasure
Case Studies & Materials • Materials & Websites for Teaching ECC • www.tsbvi.edu • http://www.tsbvi.edu/recc/index.htm • http://www.tsbvi.edu/recc/ils.htm • Assessment materials, curriculum and family resources can be found on these sites. • http://www.ed.arizona.edu/azaer/AZ%20Standards%20Aligned.pdf • www.afb.com
Class Discussion • Open Forum for Discussion- Shouldn’t daily living skills be taught at home? Why or Why not? • Feedback on Topic: Share ideas of implementations of Daily Living Skills as part of the ECC.