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FDISK. Partitioning Hard Disks. History. We bought our new hard disk drive Right size for BIOS and OS Right connections (PATA/SATA) We installed our new drive Red stripe to Pin 1 Power connector Master/Slave jumper set correctly – or- Serial ATA connector and power connector

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fdisk

FDISK

Partitioning Hard Disks

history
History
  • We bought our new hard disk drive
    • Right size for BIOS and OS
    • Right connections (PATA/SATA)
  • We installed our new drive
    • Red stripe to Pin 1
    • Power connector
    • Master/Slave jumper set correctly – or-
    • Serial ATA connector and power connector
  • We checked that the new drive “shows up” in CMOS
partitioning a drive
Partitioning a Drive
  • We need to create one, or more, partitions on a drive as a first step to data storage
  • Partitioning sets the boundaries for our data/files area
  • Partitioning is loosely related to what file system (next topic) we intend to use
  • Partitioning sets the drive letter assignment (C:, D:, etc.)
why partition
Why Partition
  • DOS 3.3 could only use a 32 MB partition, even as disk sizes grew beyond that
  • Today, Windows can use up to 2.2TB with MBR
  • Allows flexibility in how you use a drive: C: for Windows, D: for data, E: for pictures…
  • Partitioning allows for more than one OS on a hard disk drive – though not recommended
  • Partitioning sets boundaries for FORMAT
partitioning creates
Partitioning Creates
  • Master Boot Record (MBR) – small code file that transfers control from POST to OS; it lives in the Boot Sector
  • Partition Table, also in Boot Sector, stores information about partition(s). Sector 0.
partition boot sector
Partition Boot Sector

Stores location of boot file.

Partition

Partition

primary partitions
Primary Partitions
  • Primary Partition stores the OS
  • Have to have (at least) one Primary
  • Primary must be set Active to boot
  • In Windows, the Primary Partition is C:
  • In theory, we could have four Primaries, but FDISK only allows for one; Disk Manager allows four
multiple primary
Multiple Primary
  • Here is an example of multiple Primary Partitions, but still only one is Active:
extended partition type
Extended Partition Type
  • Not required for bootable system; optional
  • Extended Partitions are NOT bootable, can’t store a bootable OS here
  • Can only have one Extended Partition on a physical drive
  • We have to further divide the Extended Partition into “Logical Drives” – which get drive letters – before we can use the area
  • EP does not get a drive letter
dynamic disks
Dynamic Disks
  • Introduced with Windows 2000
  • Also called Dynamic Storage Partitioning
  • Works with “Volumes” not Partitions
  • Can span: A volume can be part on one (physical) hard drive and part on another (physical) hard drive.
  • Proprietary to Microsoft; has to be done “after the fact” – after OS is installed
  • XP Home and Media Center won’t do this
dynamic volumes
Dynamic Volumes
  • Simple is like a Primary Partition – basic vanilla flavor
  • Spanned uses two sections of two drives as one drive letter. Risky
  • Stripped volumes are Raid 0 – half data goes on one drive, half on another
  • Mirrored volumes are Raid 1 – same data goes on two physical drives
  • Raid 5 requires three drives for data, data and parity
guid partitions
GUID Partitions
  • Globally Unique Identifier Partition Table (GPT)
  • Large number of partitions
  • Disk “Translation” is over
  • 32- and 64-bit code is possible
  • Have to have Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) motherboard
  • Allows for disks above 2.2TB
  • Only in 64-bit versions of Windows
hidden partitions
Hidden Partitions
  • Some computer makers use these to store image of hard drive for restore operations
  • Normally, you don’t see this partition – special utilities access it
  • Can not create one with FDISK
partitioning tools
Partitioning Tools
  • FDISK – DOS, Windows up to ME
  • Disk Administrator – Windows NT
  • Disk Management – Windows 2K, XP, Vista and 7
  • With FDISK, you can’t change a partition without deleting it first: total destruction of data; DM allows some changes
  • Third-party tools (PartitionMagic) allow changes to existing partitions
what it looks like
What it looks like

MBR

Primary Partition C:

0 GB

200 GB

Primary Partition C:

Extended Partition

what it looks like1
What it looks like

MBR

Primary Partition C:

0 GB

200 GB

Primary Partition C:

Extended Partition

Logical Drives

Drive D:

Drive E:

file systems
File Systems
  • Windows NT
  • Windows 95a
  • Windows 95b
  • Windows 2000
  • Windows XP
  • Windows Vista

NTFS 4

FAT 16

FAT 32

NTFS (4), 5

then how big
Then How Big?

Make sure this is the drive you want!

Number (for size) or number+% for size

here it is
Here it is

Not formatted yet

Status is blank

drive letter assignment
Drive Letter Assignment
  • Primary Partitions
  • Logical Drives (within Extended Partition)
  • All non-hard disk drives
when you have a second drive
When you have a second drive

Notice additional option