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The Halogens. Group VII. Group VII. Known as halogens Derived from Greek, Salt maker React with metals to form salts Astatine doesn’t really exist for a long enough time to explore its chemistry we predict its reactions by observing trends. At RTP. Fluorine Pale yellow gas Chlorine

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the halogens

The Halogens

Group VII

group vii
Group VII
  • Known as halogens
    • Derived from Greek, Salt maker
    • React with metals to form salts
  • Astatine doesn’t really exist for a long enough time to explore its chemistry
    • we predict its reactions by observing trends
at rtp
At RTP
  • Fluorine
    • Pale yellow gas
  • Chlorine
    • Pale green gas
    • Bleaches damp litmus
  • Bromine
    • Brown Liquid (evaporates easily to a brown gas)
    • Does nasty things to skin!
  • Iodine
    • Dark grey / black crystals
    • Sublimes to a violet vapour on gentle heating
properties
Properties
  • Electron configuration
    • 5 p electrons.
  • Atomic Radius
    • Increases down the group
  • Ionic radius
    • Increases down the group
  • First Ionisation energy
    • Decreases down group
  • First Electron Affinity
    • Decreases down group
  • Electronegativity.
    • Decreases from F - I
compounds
Compounds
  • Solubility
    • Chlorine and Bromine are fairly soluble in water
    • They react reversibly
    • Cl2 +H2O  HCl + HOCl
    • Aqueous solutions are called Chlorine or Bromine water
    • Chlorine water is (just about) pale green
    • Bromine water is orangey brown – red
    • Iodine is only slightly soluble in water
    • Halogens are much more soluble in hexane.
bonding in halogens
Bonding in halogens
  • Ionic Bonding
    • All the Halogens form X- ions
    • With group I & II
      • Ionic bonding
    • With group III
      • Aluminium fluoride
        • Ionic
      • Aluminium chloride varies depending on whether it is anhydrous or not.
    • With d-block metals
      • Covelant when anhydrous
      • Ionic with water.
bonding in halogens1
Bonding in halogens
  • Covalent Bonding
    • Polar covalent bonds with almost all non metals
    • Fluorine is always in the -1 oxidation state
    • Chlorine is in the -1 oxidation state unless bonded with fluorine or oxygen
  • Halogens other than fluorine have empty d-orbitals so it is possible to promote electrons from the p-orbital into the energetically similar d-orbital
  • This allows more than one covalent bond to be formed.
    • This only happens when bonded to a small very electronegative atom such as oxygen.
reactions of the halogens
Reactions of the Halogens
  • Reactions with Metals
reactions of the halogens1
Reactions of the Halogens
  • Reactions with phosphorus
reactions of the halogens2
Reactions of the Halogens
  • Reactions with solutions of other halides
reactions of the halogens3
Reactions of the Halogens
  • Reactions with water
reactions of the halogens4
Reactions of the Halogens
  • Reactions with alkali
reactions of the halogens5
Reactions of the Halogens
  • Reactions with reducing agents
reactions of the halogens6
Reactions of the Halogens
  • Reactions with sodium thiosulphate
ad