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Unit 5: States of Consciousness

Unit 5: States of Consciousness

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Unit 5: States of Consciousness

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  1. Unit 5:States of Consciousness

  2. Unit Overview • Sleep and Dreams • Hypnosis • Drugs and Consciousness Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.

  3. Introduction • Consciousness • States of consciousness • Sleep • Wake • Altered states

  4. States of Consciousness

  5. Sleep and Dreams

  6. Biological Rhythms and SleepCircadian Rhythm • Circadian rhythm • 24 hour cycle • Temperature changes • Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) • melatonin

  7. Biological Rhythms and SleepCircadian Rhythm

  8. Biological Rhythms and SleepSleep Stages • Stages of sleep • Awake • Alpha waves • Stage 1 • Sleep • Hallucinations • Hypnagogic sensations

  9. Biological Rhythms and SleepSleep Stages • Stages of sleep • Stage 2 • Sleep spindles • Stage 3 • Stage 4 • Delta waves • REM sleep

  10. Biological Rhythms and SleepSleep Stages

  11. Biological Rhythms and SleepREM Sleep • REM sleep vs NREM sleep • Paradoxical sleep • Typical nights sleep • 90 minute cycle

  12. Biological Rhythms and SleepTypical Nights Sleep

  13. Why Do We Sleep? • Variations in sleeping patterns • Cultural influences • Sleep debt

  14. Why Do We Sleep?The Effects of Sleep Loss

  15. Why Do We Sleep?The Effects of Sleep Loss

  16. Why Do We Sleep?The Effects of Sleep Loss • US Navy and NIH studies • Age and sleep loss • Chronic sleep loss • Spring and fall time changes

  17. Why Do We Sleep?The Effects of Sleep Loss

  18. Why Do We Sleep?Sleep Theories • Sleep theories • Sleep protects • Sleep helps recuperation • Memory storage • Sleep and creative thinking • Sleep and growth

  19. Sleep Disorders • Sleep disorders • Insomnia • Narcolepsy • Sleep apnea • Night terrors • Sleepwalking/ sleeptalking

  20. DreamsWhat We Dream • Dreams • Manifest content • Latent content

  21. DreamsWhy We Dream • To satisfy our own wishes • To file away memories • To develop/preserve neural pathways • To make sense of neural static • To reflect cognitive development • REM rebound

  22. A Lifetime of Sleep

  23. Critical Considerations: Does not address the neuroscience of dreams.

  24. Hypnosis

  25. Introduction • Hypnosis • Hypnotic induction • Hypnosis as an altered state?

  26. Facts and Falsehoods • Can Anyone Experience Hypnosis? • Postural sway • Susceptibility • Can Hypnosis Enhance Recall of Forgotten Events? • Age regression

  27. Facts and Falsehoods • Can Hypnosis Force People to Act Against Their Will? • Can Hypnosis Be Therapeutic? • Hypnotherapists • Posthypnotic suggestion • Can Hypnosis Alleviate Pain?

  28. Explaining the Hypnotic StateHypnosis as a Social Phenomenon • “Good hypnotic subjects” • Social influence theory

  29. Explaining the Hypnotic StateHypnosis as Divided Consciousness • Hilgard • Dissociation • Unified account of hypnosis

  30. Levels of Analysis for Hypnosis

  31. Drugs and Consciousness

  32. Introduction • Psychoactive drugs

  33. Dependence and Addiction • Tolerance • Withdrawal • Dependence • Physical dependence • Psychological dependence

  34. Dependence and AddictionMisconceptions About Addiction • Addiction • Myths • Addictive drugs quickly corrupt • Addictions cannot be overcome voluntarily without therapy • The concept of addiction applies to all pleasure-seeking behaviors

  35. Psychoactive Drugs • Three types of psychoactive drugs • Depressants • Stimulants • Hallucinogens

  36. Psychoactive DrugsDepressants • Depressants • Alcohol • Barbiturates (tranquilizers) • Opiates

  37. Psychoactive DrugsDepressants - Alcohol • Disinhibition • Slowed neural processing • Memory disruption • Reduced self-awareness and self-control • Expectancy effects • Alcohol + Sex = The Perfect Storm

  38. Psychoactive DrugsDepressants – Barbiturates and Opiates • Barbiturate (tranquilizers) • Opiates • Endorphins

  39. Psychoactive DrugsStimulants • Introduction • Stimulants • Amphetamines • Methamphetamine (speed) • Crystal meth • Caffeine

  40. Psychoactive DrugsStimulants • Nicotine • Cocaine • Crack • Ecstasy • MDMA

  41. Psychoactive DrugsStimulants - Nicotine

  42. Psychoactive DrugsStimulants - Cocaine

  43. Psychoactive DrugsStimulants - Cocaine

  44. Psychoactive DrugsHallucinogens • Hallucinogens (psychedelics) • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) • Acid • Near-death experience • Marijuana • THC

  45. Influences of Drug Use • Biological Influences • Psychological and Social-Cultural Influences

  46. Psychoactive Drugs

  47. Levels of Analysis for Drug Use

  48. The End