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Sudden Illnesses. Anthrax Smallpox Heart Problems Stroke Asthma COPD Hyperventilation Fainting. Sudden Illnesses #2. Seizures Diabetes Abdominal distress Various other problems. Anthrax. Most commonly occurs in hoofed animals Bacteria spores can live in the soil years

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sudden illnesses
Sudden Illnesses
  • Anthrax
  • Smallpox
  • Heart Problems
  • Stroke
  • Asthma
  • COPD
  • Hyperventilation
  • Fainting
sudden illnesses 2
Sudden Illnesses #2
  • Seizures
  • Diabetes
  • Abdominal distress
  • Various other problems
  • Most commonly occurs in hoofed animals
  • Bacteria spores can live in the soil years
  • Can infect humans
three serious forms of anthrax transmission
Three Serious Forms of Anthrax / Transmission
  • Inhalation (breathing spores)
  • Cutaneous (skin)
  • Intestinal (spread by eating undercooked meat from infected animals)
  • Historically, rare in the U.S.
anthrax symptoms
Anthrax Symptoms
  • Inhaled:
    • Severe cold / flu/ progress to breathing problems and shock
    • Usually fatal
cutaneous anthrax
Cutaneous Anthrax
  • Resembles insect bite
  • Raised itchy bumps
  • Develops black (necrotic) area in center
  • 20% untreated cases result in death
intestinal anthrax
Intestinal Anthrax
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever
  • Abdominal pain, vomiting blood, severe diahrrhea
  • 25%-60% die
vaccine for anthrax
Vaccine For Anthrax
  • Vaccine has been licensed for humans
  • 93% effective
  • Recommended for people who work in fields where contact is highly likely
  • Military personnel
  • Mild reactions in 30%
suspicious mail
Suspicious Mail
  • Do not open
  • Place in a bag
  • Prevent spills of powder substance
  • Call authorities
  • Wash hands
  • Cautions with aerosol sprays
  • Incubation: 12 days
  • High fever, fatigue, head and back aches
  • Rash: predominately on face, arms, legs in 2-3 days
    • Flat red lesions
    • Become pus filled, crusts and scabs
    • Falls off in 3-4 weeks.
  • 30% death rate
spread of smallpox
Spread of Smallpox
  • Infected saliva droplets
  • Vaccination: some risks
    • George Washington
  • Poison made from waste left over in processing castor beans
  • Forms: powder, mist, pellet or dissolved in water or weak acid
  • Accidental exposure highly unlikely
  • As little as 500 micrograms injected (pin head size) could kill
  • Larger amounts required if inhaled or swallowed
  • Poisoned victims are not contagious
  • Was possibly used in the Iran-Iraq war in the 80’s
  • Ricin found in Al Qaeda caves in Afghanistan
  • Blocks cells from making proteins
ricin signs and symptoms
Ricin Signs and Symptoms
  • Inhalation:
    • Coughing, tightness in chest, difficulty breathing, nausea, aching muscles
    • Quickly, lungs become inflamed, lung fluids build, skin may turn blue
ricin signs and symptoms15
Ricin Signs and Symptoms
  • Injestion
    • Internal bleeding of stomach and intestines
    • Leads to bloody vomit and diarrhea
    • Liver, spleen, kidneys may stop functioning
    • May lead to death
ricin signs and symptoms16
Ricin Signs and Symptoms
  • Injection
    • All previously cited signs and symptoms may occur
ricin death
Ricin: Death
  • May occur in 36-48 hours – no matter the type of exposure
  • If one lives longer than 5 days w/o complications, they will probably survive
ricin treatment
Ricin Treatment


No widely available, reliable test to confirm exposure

the cardiovascular system and disease prevention

The Cardiovascular System and Disease Prevention

42% of all deaths in the U.S. are related to heart disease

cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular Disease
  • 1 million deaths each year
  • 275 billion dollars
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States.
coronary artery disease
Coronary Artery Disease
  • Primary form of heart disease
  • A disease involving waxy plaque build-up in the arteries
coronary risk factors
Coronary Risk Factors
  • Primary Risk Factors:Factors that have been definitively associated with or directly cause coronary artery disease.
  • Secondary Risk Factors:Factors believed to contribute to or advance the severity of atheroschlerosis and CAD.
primary risk factors alterable
Primary Risk Factors (Alterable)
  • Smoking
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • High serum cholesterol
  • Physical inactivity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Obesity
  • Family History
secondary risk factors
Secondary Risk Factors
  • Stress
  • Age
  • Gender (male vs. female)
  • Chest pain usually brought on by:
    • Physical exertion, exposure to cold
    • Emotional stress
    • Due to ischemia
      • (reduced oxygen to part of the heart muscle)
      • Duration of pain: less than 10 minutes
  • Usually relieved by nitroglycerin
about nitroglycerine
About Nitroglycerine
  • Give one dose approximately every 3 to 5 minutes (3 dosages in 10 minutes)
    • Transport if 3 dosages are necessary
  • Dosage amounts vary
    • Available in tablets, spray, ointment, patch
  • Victim should be sitting or lying down
    • Reduces blood pressure
    • Reduces work for the heart (dilates arteries which increases blood flow)
heart attack
Heart Attack
  • Blood supply to a portion of heart muscle is severely reduced or stopped
heart attack signs and symptoms
Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms
  • Chest pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain
  • Pain lasts longer than 10 minutes
  • Radiating pain
  • Light-headedness, fainting, sweating, nausea, shortness of breath
  • Indigestion?? (neighbor)
heart attack signs and symptoms 2
Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms #2
  • May occur during rest or activity
  • Pain not relieved by nitroglycerin
  • Not all signs are always present
  • Victim will be in denial
  • Get help immediately
other causes of chest pain
Other Causes of Chest Pain
  • Rib injury
  • Pneumonia, bronchitis, pleurisy
  • Lung injury
  • Indigestion
  • Nerve impingement
chest pain heart attack what to do
Chest Pain: Heart Attack / What To Do
  • Call EMS or transport
  • Monitor ABC’s / give CPR if necessary
  • Place victim in least painful position
    • (Usually in half sitting position, knees bent)
    • Loosen tight clothing around neck and mid-section
  • Maintain composure / reassure
  • Determine if there is a history of heart disease
  • Check for medications
    • Nitroglycerine / give one aspirin if not allergic
stroke cerebrovascular accident cva brain attack
Stroke: Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) “Brain Attack”
  • Occurs as a result of:
    • Clot (80%)
    • Ruptured vessel (20%)
  • Lack of oxygen to brain: cells die
  • Third largest cause of death in U.S.
  • Major cause of disability
transient ischemic attacks tia s
Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA’s)
  • Mini-strokes
  • Precursor to major stroke
  • May last a few minutes to several hours
  • Function normally returns
stroke risk factors
Stroke Risk Factors
  • >50 years of age
  • Birth control pills and > 30 years old
  • Overweight
  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Substance abuse (esp. crack)
  • Family history
stroke signs and symptoms
Stroke: Signs and Symptoms
  • Sudden weakness or numbness of face, arm, leg, on one side of the body (Strokes areusually unilateral)
  • Loss of speech, difficulty speaking, difficulty understanding speech
  • Blurred or decreased vision (one side)
    • Deviation of PEARL
  • Unexplained dizziness, unsteadiness, loss of balance
  • Sudden severe headache
stroke what to do
Stroke: What To Do
  • Check ABC’s
  • Call EMS
  • Victim conscious?
    • Have victim lay down with upper body and head slightly elevated
  • Unresponsive but breathing?
    • Recovery position
    • Chin extended to keep airway open
  • Do not give liquids or food (throat may be paralyzed)
  • Chronic, inflammatory lung disease
    • Air passages narrow
    • Difficulty exhaling
    • Tends to resolve with age
what triggers asthma attacks
What Triggers Asthma Attacks?
  • Respiratory tract infection
  • Extreme temperatures, especially cold
  • Strong odors, perfumes, dust, fumes, smoke, allergens, air pollution
  • Certain drugs (aspirin, beta blockers)
  • Exercise
  • Emotional stress
signs of asthma attack
Signs of Asthma Attack
  • Coughing
  • Wheezing or whistling sound
  • Flared nostrils
  • Cyanosis (blue)
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Blue lips / fingertips
  • These symptoms may also indicate other health problems such as pneumonia, cystic fibrosis
asthma what to do
Asthma: What To Do
  • Sit in upright position, leaning slightly forward
  • Pursed lip breathing
  • Inhaler or other medications
    • (Child at YMCA / show inhaler / hold 10 sec.)
  • Monitor ABC’s if necessary
asthma what to do44
Asthma: What To Do
  • Determine cause of attack - remove victim from causative environment
    • Abrupt change in outdoor temperature, dust, feathers, animals, tobacco smoke, paint, etc.
  • Keep conversations brief
  • Seek medical attention if necessary
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: COPD
  • Primary cause: SMOKING
  • Primarily includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  • Chronic bronchitis
    • Affects bronchioles (become thickened)
    • Caused by chronic infections and irritations such as cigarette smoke
    • Symptoms: “Cigarette cough, breathing difficulty, increased sputum and severe coughing
copd emphysema
COPD – Emphysema
  • Destruction of alveoli
  • Loss of lung elasticity
  • Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath
  • May become dependent on oxygen
copd what to do
COPD: What To Do
  • Sitting position
  • Usually have their own medications
  • Encourage fluid intake
  • In acute distress? Get medical assistance
  • Usually brought on by emotional stress
  • Shortness of breath
  • Characterized by extremely fast breathing
  • Dizziness
  • Numbness
  • Tingling of hands and feet
hyperventilation what to do
Hyperventilation: What To Do
  • Encourage slow deep breathing
  • Inhale through nose and hold for several seconds
  • Exhale slowly through pursed lips
  • Calm and reassure the victim
  • Do not place a paper bag over the head
  • A sudden, brief loss of consciousness unassociated with a head injury
  • Occurs when the brain’s blood flow in interrupted
    • Often occurs when standing for prolonged periods of time (results in blood pooling) which may result in a drop in blood pressure
    • Can be brought on by hypoglycemia, dehydration, anemia, heat exhaustion, slow heart rate, anxiety and emotional stress
  • Look for:
    • Dizziness
    • Weakness
    • Seeing spots
    • Visual blurring
    • Nausea
    • Pale skin
    • Sweating
fainting what to do
Fainting: What To Do
  • Prevent from falling
  • Have victim lie down on back
  • Elevate feet 8-12 inches
  • Loosen tight clothing
  • After recovery,
    • Give fluid with sugar
    • Fresh air / cool cloth
fainting when to seek medical attention
Fainting: When To Seek Medical Attention
  • Over 40 years of age
  • Repeated attacks
  • Loses consciousness while sitting or lying down
  • Does not quickly regain consciousness (is out > 4 to 5 minutes)
  • Faints for no apparent reason
  • Results from abnormal stimulation of brain cells
    • Exact cause is usually not known
  • Medications are available yet are not easily controlled
conditions that may lead to seizures
Conditions That May Lead To Seizures
  • Epilepsy
  • Heatstroke
  • Poisoning
  • Electric shock
  • Hypoglycemia
  • High fever in children (fever convulsions)
  • Brain injury, tumor, stroke
  • Alcohol withdrawal, drug abuse / overdose
major classifications of seizures
Major Classifications of Seizures
  • Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures
    • Grand mal
  • Absence Seizures
    • Blank stare
  • Complex partial Seizures
    • Part of brain involved
    • Dazed, may mumble or wobble
  • Febrile Seizures
    • High fever (cool body / wet cloth)
generalized tonic clonic seizures grand mal
Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures Grand mal
  • Often associated with epilepsy
  • May experience a “sensation” prior to seizure
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Stiff, then jerking motion
  • Duration: 2 to 5 minutes
  • Muscle contraction, perhaps tongue biting
  • Is usually followed by a period of coma or drowsiness, headache, muscle soreness
first aid procedures for seizures and convulsions
First Aid Procedures For Seizures and Convulsions
  • If possible:
    • Cushion head
    • Remove items that victim may bump into
    • Loosen tight neckwear
    • Place on left side
    • Medical-alert tag
    • As seizure ends, offer help
first aid for seizures 2
First Aid For Seizures #2
  • Call 911???
  • Definitely call if:
    • If seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes
    • If not known to have epilepsy or seizure ID
    • Slow recovery
    • A second seizure
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Pregnancy or other medical conditions (ID)
    • Signs of injury or illness
do not s for seizure victims
DO NOT’S For Seizure Victims
  • Do not give food or drink
  • Do not restrain victim
  • Do not put anything between victim’s teeth
  • Do not move to another place (unless to protect from injury)
status epilepticus
Status Epilepticus
  • Two or more seizures with no period of consciousness
  • Call 911 – This is an emergency
diabetes mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus
  • A condition in which glucose is unable to enter the cells
  • A disease associated withproblems in controlling blood glucoseor blood sugar
  • The disease results when the pancreas has problems producing insulin or the body can no longer use insulin properly
  • Insulin is the “taxi”that carries sugar from the blood to the cells
types of diabetes
Types of Diabetes
  • Type I
    • Insulin dependent or juvenile onset
    • Congenital
  • Type II: maturity or adult onset
    • 90% of all cases are this type
    • Usually non-insulin dependent
    • Results from obesity and inactivity
  • Gestational onset
normal blood sugar levels
Normal Blood Sugar Levels
  • Normal blood sugar levels: 65-110
  • Low levels of blood sugar
  • Some may experience hypoglycemia but are not diabetic
    • protein is often recommended, sometimes along with sugar
  • Sudden onset
  • Occurs when eating has been delayed or when too much insulin was administered (blood sugar level drops)
  • May be fatal if left unattended
hypoglycemia signs and symptoms
Hypoglycemia: Signs and Symptoms
  • Sudden onset
  • Sudden hunger
  • Trembling / Shaking
  • Anger, bad temper (mood change)
  • Staggering, poor coordination
  • Pale
  • Confusion, disorientation, altered mental status
  • Sweating
  • Eventual stupor or unconsciousness or seizure
hypoglycemia what to do
Hypoglycemia: What To Do
  • If victim is known diabetic, has altered mental status, and is awake enough to swallow:
    • GIVE 10-15 grams of sugar
      • ½ can regular soda
      • 6 jelly beans
      • P.275
    • If no improvement after 15 minutes, give 15 more sugar
    • If no improvement, take to the hospital
      • (trim gym, student at ballgame)
  • Glucagon: injectable medication
  • The body has too much sugar in the blood
  • Pancreas fails to produce insulin to lower sugar levels
    • When sugar levels remain high, over time, it damages the walls of the vessels, leading to impairment of the circulatory system
    • Affects functioning of most organs
    • Problems healing (small cuts, amputations)
    • Blindness
  • Diabetic coma (ketoacidosis)
    • Levels may rise to 1200
    • Body begins to burn fat as primary fuel
    • Fat as fuel results in production of acids and ketones = “fruity breath”
hyperglycemia signs and symptoms
Hyperglycemia: Signs and Symptoms
  • Gradual onset
  • Drowsiness
  • Extreme thirst / dry mouth
  • Frequent urination
  • Flushed skin
  • Vomiting / nausea
  • Fruity breath
  • Heavy breathing
  • Eventual stupor or unconsciousness
hyperglycemia what to do
Hyperglycemia: What To Do
  • Have conscious victim follow physician’s recommendations
  • If you are uncertain if sugar level is high or low, GIVE SUGAR
  • If no response in 15 minutes, get to the hospital
abdominal distress
Abdominal Distress
  • Gastrointestinal problems
    • Cramping, aching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • May be viral or bacterial
    • Difficult to determine the cause
abdominal distress ask these questions
Abdominal Distress? Ask These Questions
  • Cramping pain?
  • Constant pain?
    • (indicates organ inflammation)
  • Nausea? Poor appetite? Fever?
  • Diarrhea or vomiting?
  • Is a “virus” going around?
  • Chance of pregnancy?
  • Abdomen rigid to touch?
    • Emergency (son)
nausea vomiting diarrhea what to do
Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea: What To Do
  • Watch for dehydration
    • Pinch test
  • Wait for nausea to pass before giving liquids and foods
  • Give clear fluids
    • Sprite, 7-up, water
    • Jell-o, pop sickles
what to do 2
What To Do #2
  • Hot water bottle, warm bath
  • Lay on left side, knees bent
  • Suppository (by prescription)
  • Solid food?
    • Crackers, toast
  • Avoid milk and meats for 48 hours
  • Let diarrhea run its course
    • Imodium A-D)
what to do for infants
What To Do For Infants:
  • Vomiting or projectile vomiting?
  • Diahrrea?
    • Pedialite
abdominal distress when to seek medical attention
Abdominal Distress: When To Seek Medical Attention
  • Constant pain
  • Unable to drink for more than 24 hours
  • Blood or brown grainy matter in vomit
  • Vomiting following a head injury
  • Additionally:
    • Black or bloody stools
    • Rigid, swollen, distended stomach
    • Pain when abdomen is pressed then released