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Ancient Contributions Hippocrates (ca. 460-360 B.C.), founder of medicine Plato (427-347 B.C.), argued for importance of exercise Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), first scholarly works on movement in animals Archimedes (287-212 B.C.), principle underlying hydrostatic weighing

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Ancient Contributions
  • Hippocrates (ca. 460-360 B.C.), founder of medicine
  • Plato (427-347 B.C.), argued for importance of exercise
  • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), first scholarly works on movement in animals
  • Archimedes (287-212 B.C.), principle underlying hydrostatic weighing
  • Galen (129-199 A.D.) an early precursor to textbook of Shea & Wright
middle ages 350 1350 ad
Middle Ages 350-1350 AD


involved extreme self-denial (including development of the physical) in order to ensure spiritual self

  • _________________

involved full commitment to the development of the mind as opposed to the body

renaissance and reformation ca 1350 1650 ad
Renaissance and Reformation (ca. 1350-1650 AD)
  • Rebirth and change were the order of the day
    • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), detailed drawings of human anatomy and physique
    • _________ (1564-1642), formalization of physics
new beginnings 18 19th centuries
New Beginnings (18 & 19th centuries)
  • Sir Issac Newton (1642-1727), laws of motion
  • Wilhem Wundt (1870s), training the mind
  • Development of Swedish and German Gymnastics systems in 1800s
  • Association for Advancement of Physical Education founded in _____
early programs in physical education
Early Programs in Physical Education
  • Dudley Sargent (late 1800’s), Director of Hemingway Gymnasium ($110, 000)
  • Harvard University (1891),4 yr degree in anatomy, physiology, and physical training (curriculum included: experimental physics, zoology, general anatomy, comparative anatomy, English, foreign languages, anthropometry, applied anatomy, animal mechanics, and gymnastics and athletics.

Texas A&M University Student Rec Center built at a cost of 36.4 million

emergence of a discipline
Emergence of a discipline

A discipline is an organized body of knowledge collectively embraced in a formal course of learning. Its principle function is to develop a coherent body of knowledge that describes, explains, and predicts key phenomena from the domain of interest (or area of study)

(From Abernethy et al. 1997, The Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement)

aakpe nature of the field
AAKPE: Nature of the Field
  • A. Physical Activity Focus
    • posture, locomotion, manipulation, communication
    • daily living, dance, sport, and work
  • B. Concentration primarily on human (the
  • individual, but should include groups,
  • (e.g., special populations) as well as society in general.
  • C. Interdisciplinary approach (see C1-C4)
  • D. Outcome or performance base
  • E. Professional training (but beyond training
  • teachers)
inter disciplinary nature of this discipline
Inter-disciplinary nature of this discipline
  • Movement and biological sciences
    • anatomical kinesiology, exercise physiology, health & fitness
  • Movement coordination, control and skill
    • biomechanics, motor control, motor learning, motor development, adapted PE
  • Movement and the individual self
    • sport psychology
  • Movement, society, and culture
    • sport psychology, motor development, sport sociology, sport history, sport management

From AAKPE, 1997

potential pitfall in the discipline fragmentation
Potential Pitfall in the discipline: Fragmentation
  • greater specialization of faculty, training, and programs
  • reliance on literature from broader fields (physiology,engineering, psychology, education)
  • proliferation of societies
  • proliferation of journals
what s in a name
What’s in a name?
  • increased rigor (see next slide)
  • more emphasis in cross-disciplinary approach (kinesiology is better fit)
  • reduced need for PE teachers
    • less time spent in classroom/more time in recreation activity
  • broader professional scope
the need for increased rigor
The need for increased rigor
  • GRE (1984-1987)

Physics (#1) V=568, Q=692, T =1260

PE (#95) V=421, Q=483, T = 904

  • SAT (1990 1st yr. Umass Students)

Sp. Management 928

Prof. Prep 890

Ex. Sci. 1003

(Taken from Katch, 1989)


Comprehensive and systematic study of physical activity. It is a field of academic inquiry concerned with understanding how and why people are physically active, and the factors that limit or enhance our capacity for physical activity

where physical activity is considered to be:

an intentional, voluntary movement directed toward achieving an identifiable goal


Professions, as a general rule, try to improve the conditions of society by providing regulated services in which practices and education/training programs are developed that are in accordance with knowledge available from one or more disciplines

  • identifiable tasks performed
  • framework developed within publicly recognized organization
  • certain education or training requirements
  • political recognition
  • code of ethics or standards for acceptable practice
broad professional agenda


______ ______

______ ______











Broad Professional Agenda

Taken From Newell, 1989

disciplines and professions the relationship
Disciplines and Professions: The relationship





  • Definitions
  • Descriptions
  • Relationships
  • Causes
  • Effects
  • Objectives
  • Programs
  • Teaching
  • Training
  • Learning
  • Evaluation





kinesiology subjective experience
Kinesiology: Subjective Experience

Unique in that everyone experiences physical activity which provides a contributing perspective:

  • self -sufficiency
  • self-expression
  • work
  • education
  • leisure
  • health
  • competition

Modified from Hoffman & Harris, 2000


Kinesiology: Subjective Experience

  • Self-sufficiency
    • ADL
      • Aging
      • Disease State
  • Self-expression
    • Gestures
    • Dances
    • Rituals
kinesiology subjective experience1
Kinesiology: Subjective Experience
  • Work
    • Intensity
    • Efficiency
      • injury and ergonomics
  • Education
    • K-12
  • Leisure
    • physical activity
    • sport watching
physically educated naspe 1995
Physically Educated: NASPE 1995
  • Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms
  • applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills
  • exhibit a physically active lifestyle
  • Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness
  • demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity settings
  • demonstrates an understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings
  • understands that physical activity provides the opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and social interaction
kinesiology subjective experience2
Kinesiology: Subjective Experience
  • Health

in 1992 13. 6% of GDP spent on health care

    • prevention (physical and psychological well-being)
    • intervention
  • Competition (not just sport!)
    • teams (varsity, intramural)
    • individual
    • impersonal












Ex. Physiology


Family of


Sp. Pedagogy




Sp. Psych


Motor Dev.



Health & Fitness

Motor Behavior