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ROBOTS. History of Robots Important Roles and Jobs Advantages and Disadvantages Future concerns. A robot is defined as :

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  1. ROBOTS • History of Robots • Important Roles • and Jobs • Advantages and • Disadvantages • Future concerns

  2. A robot is defined as: • A mechanical device that sometimes resembles a human and is capable of performing a variety of often complex human tasks on command or by being programmed in advance. • A machine or device that operates automatically or by remote control • Therefore, what device was considered the first robot and when was it developed? • A clock, ~ 270 BC

  3. A Short History of Robots • http://prime.jsc.nasa.gov/ROV/history.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archytas • http://robotics.megagiant.com/history.html • Robot Timeline: • 350BC - the Greek mathematician, Archytas (ahr ky’ tuhs) builds a mechanical bird dubbed “the pigeon” that is propelled by steam. • 270BC - a Greek engineer named Ctesibus (ti sib’ ee uhs) made a pipe organ called a “hydraulis” and water clocks with movable figures. These clocks were the most accurate until the use of the pendulum in the 17th century. • 1801 – Joseph Jacquard builds an automated loom that is controlled by a punch card. Punch cards are later used as an input method for some early 20th century computers.

  4. 1818 - Mary Shelley wrote "Frankenstein" which was about a frightening artificial lifeform created by Dr. Frankenstein. • 1921 - The term "robot" was first used in a play called "R.U.R." or "Rossum's Universal Robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek (chap’ ek). The plot was simple: man makes robot then robot kills man! • 1940 – Isaac Asimov produces a series of short stories about robots starting with “A Strange Playfellow” (later renamed “Robbie”) for Super Science Stories magazine. The story is about a robot bound to protect a child. It is later compiled into the volume, “I, Robot” in 1950. • 1941 - Science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first used the word "robotics" to describe the technology of robots and predicted the rise of a powerful robot industry.

  5. 1942 - Asimov wrote "Runaround", a story about robots which contained the "Three Laws of Robotics": • A robot may not injure a human, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. • A robot must obey the orders it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. • A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. • He later adds the “Zeroth Law”. A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. • 1948 - "Cybernetics", an influence on artificial intelligence research was published by Norbert Wiener. • 1956 - George Devol and Joseph Engelberger formed the world's first robot company.

  6. 1959 - Computer-assisted manufacturing was demonstrated at the Servomechanisms Lab at MIT. • 1961 - The first industrial robot was online in a General Motors automobile factory in New Jersey. It was called UNIMATE. • 1963 - The first artificial robotic arm to be controlled by a computer was designed. The Rancho Arm was designed as a tool for the handicapped and it's six joints gave it the flexibility of a human arm. • 1965 - DENDRAL was the first expert system or program designed to execute the accumulated knowledge of subject experts. • 1967 – Richard Greenblatt writes, MacHack, a program that plays chess. It beats Hurbert Dreyfus in a game of chess. Greenblatt’s program is the foundation for future chess programs including Big Blue that beats chess Grand Master Gary Kasparov. • 1969 - The Stanford Arm was the first electrically powered, computer-controlled robot arm.

  7. 1974 - A robotic arm (the Silver Arm) that performed small-parts assembly using feedback from touch and pressure sensors was designed. • 1977 – Star Wars is released. George Lucas introduces watchers to R2-D2 and C-3PO, and the strongest image of a human future with robots. It inspires a generation of researchers. • 1979 - The Standford Cart crossed a chair-filled room without human assistance. The cart had a TV camera mounted on a rail which took pictures from multiple angles and relayed them to a computer. The computer analyzed the distance between the cart and the obstacles.

  8. 1997 –Pathfinder lands on Mars. • 1997 – The first node of the ISS is placed in orbit using a robotic arm. • 1998 – Tiger Electronics introduces Furby. It can react to its environment and communicate using over 800 phrases. • 2004 – The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars and prove that Mars was once covered with water. Image courtesy of NASA

  9. 2004 – I, Robot, new version of robots trying to take over the world. • 2005 - Honda debuts new Asimo robot that can complete office tasks.

  10. Why are robots important in today’s society?

  11. ROLES AND JOBS OF ROBOTS • Computer Assisted Manufacturing • Military • Medical • Space Exploration • Personal

  12. Computer Assisted Manufacturing • Car Industry • General Packaging • Mail Processing • etc.

  13. MILITARY • Computer GPS guided bombs “smart bombs”. • Movement of troops, weapons, etc. • Advancements in war weapons, aircraft, artillery, naval ships, etc.

  14. MEDICAL • Prosthetic limbs • Pacemakers • Dialysis Machines • Heart rate monitors • Blood Pressure Machines • etc.

  15. Space Exploration • Robonaut • Personal Satellite Assistant

  16. Personal Satellite Assistant • Prototyped in 2003 • Volleyball sized • Will aid astronauts through various means

  17. Robonaut • Developed in 2004 • Humanoid robot to assist astronauts • Controlled by Virtual Reality • Stereoscopic vision • Dexterous hands • Several configurations

  18. Personal • Fax Machines • Computers • Refrigerators • Blenders • Watches • GPS Receivers • etc.

  19. ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND FUTURE CONCERNS OF ROBOTS • PROS: • Each machine “robot” helps our population greatly via technology advances and improvements in the overall health of our society. • Medicinal advancements • Labor intensive activities are decreased due to machines “robots”. • Mathematical & statistical computations. • Robots can go and do things that are unsafe for humans (Example: bomb disarming robots, space probes, etc..

  20. CONS & Future concerns: • Loss of jobs due to replacement by robots. • Cyborgs? • War of the Worlds?

  21. Types of End-effectors

  22. Robonova - 1

  23. Build Your Own End Effector

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