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ROBOTS. History of Robots Important Roles and Jobs Advantages and Disadvantages Future concerns. A robot is defined as :

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slide1

ROBOTS

  • History of Robots
  • Important Roles
  • and Jobs
  • Advantages and
  • Disadvantages
  • Future concerns
slide2

A robot is defined as:

  • A mechanical device that sometimes resembles a human and is capable of performing a variety of often complex human tasks on command or by being programmed in advance.
  • A machine or device that operates automatically or by remote control
  • Therefore, what device was considered the first robot and when was it developed?
  • A clock, ~ 270 BC
slide3

A Short History of Robots

  • http://prime.jsc.nasa.gov/ROV/history.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archytas
  • http://robotics.megagiant.com/history.html
  • Robot Timeline:
  • 350BC - the Greek mathematician, Archytas (ahr ky’ tuhs) builds a mechanical bird dubbed “the pigeon” that is propelled by steam.
  • 270BC - a Greek engineer named Ctesibus (ti sib’ ee uhs) made a pipe organ called a “hydraulis” and water clocks with movable figures. These clocks were the most accurate until the use of the pendulum in the 17th century.
  • 1801 – Joseph Jacquard builds an automated loom that is controlled by a punch card. Punch cards are later used as an input method for some early 20th century computers.
slide4

1818 - Mary Shelley wrote "Frankenstein" which was about a frightening artificial lifeform created by Dr. Frankenstein.

  • 1921 - The term "robot" was first used in a play called "R.U.R." or "Rossum's Universal Robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek (chap’ ek). The plot was simple: man makes robot then robot kills man!
  • 1940 – Isaac Asimov produces a series of short stories about robots starting with “A Strange Playfellow” (later renamed “Robbie”) for Super Science Stories magazine. The story is about a robot bound to protect a child. It is later compiled into the volume, “I, Robot” in 1950.
  • 1941 - Science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first used the word "robotics" to describe the technology of robots and predicted the rise of a powerful robot industry.
slide5

1942 - Asimov wrote "Runaround", a story about robots which contained the "Three Laws of Robotics":

    • A robot may not injure a human, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
    • A robot must obey the orders it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
    • A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
    • He later adds the “Zeroth Law”. A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
  • 1948 - "Cybernetics", an influence on artificial intelligence research was published by Norbert Wiener.
  • 1956 - George Devol and Joseph Engelberger formed the world's first robot company.
slide6

1959 - Computer-assisted manufacturing was demonstrated at the Servomechanisms Lab at MIT.

  • 1961 - The first industrial robot was online in a General Motors automobile factory in New Jersey. It was called UNIMATE.
  • 1963 - The first artificial robotic arm to be controlled by a computer was designed. The Rancho Arm was designed as a tool for the handicapped and it's six joints gave it the flexibility of a human arm.
  • 1965 - DENDRAL was the first expert system or program designed to execute the accumulated knowledge of subject experts.
  • 1967 – Richard Greenblatt writes, MacHack, a program that plays chess. It beats Hurbert Dreyfus in a game of chess. Greenblatt’s program is the foundation for future chess programs including Big Blue that beats chess Grand Master Gary Kasparov.
  • 1969 - The Stanford Arm was the first electrically powered, computer-controlled robot arm.
slide7

1974 - A robotic arm (the Silver Arm) that performed small-parts assembly using feedback from touch and pressure sensors was designed.

  • 1977 – Star Wars is released. George Lucas introduces watchers to R2-D2 and C-3PO, and the strongest image of a human future with robots. It inspires a generation of researchers.
  • 1979 - The Standford Cart crossed a chair-filled room without human assistance. The cart had a TV camera mounted on a rail which took pictures from multiple angles and relayed them to a computer. The computer analyzed the distance between the cart and the obstacles.
slide8
1997 –Pathfinder lands on Mars.
  • 1997 – The first node of the ISS is placed in orbit using a robotic arm.
  • 1998 – Tiger Electronics introduces Furby. It can react to its environment and communicate using over 800 phrases.
  • 2004 – The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars and prove that Mars was once covered with water.

Image courtesy of NASA

slide9
2004 – I, Robot, new version of robots trying to take over the world.
  • 2005 - Honda debuts new Asimo robot that can complete office tasks.
slide11

ROLES AND JOBS OF ROBOTS

  • Computer Assisted Manufacturing
  • Military
  • Medical
  • Space Exploration
  • Personal
slide12

Computer Assisted Manufacturing

  • Car Industry
  • General Packaging
  • Mail Processing
  • etc.
slide13

MILITARY

  • Computer GPS guided bombs “smart bombs”.
  • Movement of troops, weapons, etc.
  • Advancements in war weapons, aircraft, artillery, naval ships, etc.
slide14

MEDICAL

  • Prosthetic limbs
  • Pacemakers
  • Dialysis Machines
  • Heart rate monitors
  • Blood Pressure Machines
  • etc.
space exploration
Space Exploration
  • Robonaut
  • Personal Satellite Assistant
personal satellite assistant
Personal Satellite Assistant
  • Prototyped in 2003
  • Volleyball sized
  • Will aid astronauts

through various means

robonaut
Robonaut
  • Developed in 2004
  • Humanoid robot to assist astronauts
  • Controlled by Virtual Reality
  • Stereoscopic vision
  • Dexterous hands
  • Several configurations
slide18

Personal

  • Fax Machines
  • Computers
  • Refrigerators
  • Blenders
  • Watches
  • GPS Receivers
  • etc.
slide19

ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND FUTURE CONCERNS OF ROBOTS

  • PROS:
  • Each machine “robot” helps our population greatly via technology advances and improvements in the overall health of our society.
  • Medicinal advancements
  • Labor intensive activities are decreased due to machines “robots”.
  • Mathematical & statistical computations.
  • Robots can go and do things that are unsafe for humans (Example: bomb disarming robots, space probes, etc..
slide20

CONS & Future concerns:

  • Loss of jobs due to replacement by robots.
  • Cyborgs?
  • War of the Worlds?