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Salinity change in the southeast Indian Ocean. Helen Phillips, Susan Wijffels and Ming Feng CSIRO Marine Research Australia. The study region and example time series. WMO 53547. T. S. WMO 56509. T. S. The CARS-2000 climatology (CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas).

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salinity change in the southeast indian ocean

Salinity change in the southeast Indian Ocean

Helen Phillips, Susan Wijffels and Ming Feng

CSIRO Marine Research

Australia

slide2

The study region and

example time series

WMO 53547

T

S

WMO 56509

T

S

the cars 2000 climatology csiro atlas of regional seas
The CARS-2000 climatology (CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas)
  • 4-D interpolation based on locally weighted least squares
  • Loess filter to interpolate data onto a uniform grid (.5 x .5)
  • Weighting is adjusted to allow for influence of bathymetry and land barriers
  • Isobaric averaging
  • WOD1998 supplemented by regional hydrographic data
  • Fairly even spread of data between 1960 and 2000
  • Ridgway, Dunn and Wilkin (J. Tech. V19, 1357-1375, 2002)

Temp

100m

Sal

100m

argo floats show very strong freshening of the upper layers from end 1999 to end 2002
Argo floats show very strong freshening of the upper layers from end 1999 to end 2002

Θ=22º

0.7

0

-0.7

Θ=16º

Θ=10º

-0.3 0 0.3

argo floats show the freshening wanes after end 2002 until nov 2003
Argo floats show the freshening wanes after end 2002until Nov 2003

Θ=22º

0.7

0

-0.7

Θ=16º

Θ=10º

-0.3 0 0.3

5 ctd sections in 1995 recorded strong salinity increases across the southeast indian ocean
5 CTD sections in 1995 recorded strong salinity increases across the southeast Indian Ocean

Θ=22º

0.7

0

-0.7

Θ=16º

Θ=10º

-0.3 0 0.3

salinity changes 1995 2003
Salinity changes 1995-2003

1995 - CTD

Oct 1999-Sep 2002

Oct 2002-Sep 2003

spatial distribution of p e
Spatial distribution of P-E

Jul 1995 – Jun 1997

Banda Sea

mm/day

Indo-Australian Bight

Jul 1997 – Sep 1998

Oct 1998 – Mar 2002

predicted salinity change over the top 180 metres in the indo australian basin and observations
Predicted salinity change over the top 180 metres in the Indo-Australian Basin and observations

Change due to P-E

in Indo-Australian Basin

Change due to combined P-E of

Indo-Australian Basin and

Banda Sea (lagged by 1 year)

Predicted change = Vorig – (Vorig.Sorig + Vfresh.Sfresh) / (Vorig + Vfresh)

Vorig = 180 m3, Sorig = 34.5, Sfresh = 4

summary
Summary
  • Argo floats have recorded a large amplitude, broad scale freshening of the upper layers of the Indo-Australian Basin during 2000-2002.
  • CTD data collected in 2000 supports the float data
  • Historical CTDs document strong interannual variation in the freshwater content
  • Local P-E can account for the observed salinity changes
  • In years of strong Indonesian Throughflow P-E from the Banda Sea can boost freshening (e.g. 1989)
  • The present Argo sampling strategy has worked well in this case. Profiles to 2000m provide for stable salinity calibration and high-frequency variability has not masked the large scale signal
salinity changes 1995 20031
Salinity changes 1995-2003

1995 - CTD

Oct 1999-Sep 2002

Oct 2002-Sep 2003