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Major Battles / Campaigns of the European Theatre. J.D. Baldwin Meghan Morris Ashley King. Battle of Stalingrad. Who/When. Non aggression pact signed 1939 Hitler and Russia Winter of 1942-1943 Germany led by Field Marshall Fedor von Bock German 6 th Army

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major battles campaigns of the european theatre

Major Battles / Campaigns of the European Theatre

J.D. Baldwin

Meghan Morris

Ashley King

who when

Non aggression pact signed 1939 Hitler and Russia

Winter of 1942-1943

Germany led by Field Marshall Fedor von Bock

German 6th Army

Soviets led by General Nikolai Vatutin


Germany wanted to capture Stalingrad for two reasons

Tank Factory

Psychological reasons

Soviets protect the city at all costs


Germans surrounded city and bombed

City was ruined by artillery fire

Germans were given order to not retreat

Starved and froze due to lack of supplies

German air force could not drop supplies

Allowed Soviets to get upper hand

battle continued
Battle Continued

Largest battle on the Eastern front

German sent relief force

Led by General Hoth but turned back


Germans lost 200,000-300,000 men

90,000 captured, 2,000 tanks 4,000 guns

January 31 Germans surrendered

Key turning point in war for soviets

who when1

USA, Britain, France vs. Germany and Italy

Axis led by General Rommel “Desert Fox”

Allies led by Dwight D Eisenhower



Protect the Suez Canal and the Oil Rich Middle East

To gain territory as a staging area for the European Front


Americans ill prepared for desert combat

Winners of battles went back and fourth

Until El Alamein when British defeated the Axis powers pushing them into Tunisia

Other Operations were Torch, Compass, and Sunnenblume

  • Allied Victory
  • Killed, wounded, captured
    • Germany 66,000
    • Italy 23,000
    • Britain 219,000
    • US 16,500
who when2
  • Allies Landed September 1943 - 1944
  • Allied Powers: U.S. and Britain
  • Axis Powers: Germany and Italy
  • Allies led by General Harold Alexander and Winston Churchill
  • Axis led by Adolf Hitler and Mussolini
  • Invade the majority of Italy by pushing from the south coming from Northern Africa and Sicily.
  • Gaining control of Italy to eventually invade Germany.
  • Allies use many operations and tactics to invade Italy.
  • Operation Husky: The invasion of Sicily. Preparation to invade the southern tip of Italy.
  • Operation Avalanche: Attacks to the west coast of Italy from Northern Africa.
  • Operation Baytown: Allies come off of Sicily and cross the Strait of Messina into the toe of Italy.
  • Operation Slapstick: Allies attack the east coast of Italy, attacking a main naval base of Italy forces.
  • Allies push Italian and German forces as they try to counter attack.

Operation Slapstick

Operation Avalanche

Operation Baytown

Operation Husky

  • Italy tries to reinforce against invasions
  • Allies pushed all the way north of Italy
  • Italians surrender and eventually became Allied.
  • Mussolini is rescued by Hitler
  • 2,009 Killed
  • 7,050 Wounded
  • 3,501 Missing
who when3
  • 1939-1945
  • Allies: Britain, France, Russia
  • Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan
  • Allies led by Winston Churchill
  • Axis led by Adolf Hitler
  • Allies wanted to blockade Axis powers, secure sea movements, and free military powers across the seas.
  • Axis wanted to gain control of Atlantic Sea Routes, to cut of supplies coming from North America.
  • Germans attack against the British navy forces in hope of gaining control of the Atlantic Sea Routes.
  • Using German U-Boats, or submarines attacking North American and Britain boats carrying supplies.
  • “Wolf Packs”: Groups of German U-Boats
  • Lend-Lease Act: allowed FDR to sell or lend war supplies to any country whose defense he considered vital to the safety of the U.S.
  • Germany failed to stop the flow of strategic supplies to Britain from the North American boats.
  • They were unsuccessful in gaining control of the Atlantic Sea Routes.
  • Allies: 30,248 Merchant sailors; 3,500 merchant vessels; 175 warships
  • Germans: 28,000 sailors; 783 submarines
d day

AKA Operation Overlord

Who: Allies [US, Britain, Canada, Free France, Poland, Norway] VS. Germany

US general Dwight D. Eisenhower

What: massive military invasion of France’s beaches

Where: Normandy, France

d day1

When: invasion began on June 6, 1944

Why: Reclaim France to launch offensive against Germany

How: surprise naval & air invasion– 150,000 troops came from United Kingdom staging area and landed on 5 beaches from sea; 13,000 paratroopers dropped; 13,000 bombs dropped on beaches in advance

Operation Fortitude: Allies created “fake army” to trick Germans into thinking army was at Kent (opposite of Pas de Calais)– fake radio traffic; inflatable tanks used

5 beaches
5 beaches

Sword beach: far left-- British & French only faced machine gun nest

Juno beach: 2nd from left; Canadians penetrated further than any other Allies in 1st day

Gold beach: British suffered heavy casualties b/c delayed tank & fortified German village; still advanced far

Omaha beach: most heavily fortified; 60 meter cliffs; bad conditions pushed US boats away but eventually met goal

Utah beach: westernmost beach; current pushed off target but still lightest American casualties

d day outcome
D-Day: outcome

Allies took Germans completely by surprise

150,000 men managed to get ashore by end of day

Casualties: about 10,00 Allies & 4,000-9,000 Germans

battle of the bulge
Battle of the Bulge

Who: Allies [United States, Britain, Canada] vs. Germany

What: Last big German offensive against Allies

Where: Ardennes Mountains

When: 16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945

battle of the bulge1
Battle of the Bulge
  • Why: Hitler wanted to capture Antwerp [major supply port] and then divide Allies
  • How: Surprise attack: Hitler started bombing then sent in majority of troops
    • German soldiers in US uniforms cut phone lines, changed road signs & spread confusion
    • Poor weather & low visibility
battle of the bulge outcome
Battle of the Bulge Outcome:
  • Once weather cleared, Allies countered strong German offensive
    • German offensive lasted only 2 days
  • Most casualties: 81,000 Americans & 84,000 Germans killed/injured/captured
  • Germans retreated & were depleted in manpower, morale, & equipment
  • “Ultimately, it shortened the time Hitler had left” (375) because Hitler used his major reserves to fight