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Stakeholder discussions meeting Textbooks development and per-capita financing in education . Bishkek, 21 October 2011. Textbook provision and development. Key issues since the collapse of the Soviet Era

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stakeholder discussions meeting textbooks development and per capita financing in education

Stakeholder discussions meetingTextbooks development and per-capita financing in education

Bishkek, 21 October 2011

textbook provision and development
Textbook provision and development

Key issues since the collapse of the Soviet Era

  • Provision– Cost and financing & Shortage – free textbook provision no longer possible due to collapse of public revenue. Cost unaffordable to families. Shortage in core subjects and insufficient to cover all students
  • Development - Content & Mechanism for assuring quality. Content outdated. Require modernization but hampered by inbred process
  • Monopoly and conflict of interest in authorship, selection and production

Textbooks - What the Rural Education Project has done?

  • Improve the Textbook Rental Scheme function and process to address the cost/financing issue;
  • Increase availability of textbooks in core subjects and reduce shortage in all grades by reprinting more books;
  • Address the outdated content by developing new books to align to changes in curriculum;
  • Improve the process of development by open competition for authorship, unbundle the functions of authorship, selection and production.
why per capita funding
Why Per Capita Funding?

ECA/CIS countries had an excessive number of schools with very low student/teacher ratios


  • 47 percent of all schools in Armenia had less than 300 students by 2003
  • Lithuania averaged only 12 students per teacher from 2000-2005
pcf as a response
PCF As A Response
  • Straightforward concept
  • ‘Formula funding’ in which school budgets are allocated according to a written rule
  • Budgets with fixed categories NOT decided by central governments
  • Local authorities and/or schools are given fixed amounts of financing based on the numbers of students enrolled
what is pcf
What is PCF?
  • Framework for the effective decentralization of the education systems in ECA.
  • Local authorities are given some autonomy in the use of resources, and can efficiently manage them.
  • Local authorities are expected to conform to adequate accountability mechanisms
  • Central authorities structure finance rules and accountability mechanisms
does pcf work
Does PCF Work?
  • 6 countries in ECA implemented some form of per student financing: Armenia, Estonia, Georgia, Lithuania, Poland, and Russia
  • The Bank supports the implementation of per student financing in Bulgaria, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Romania, Moldova, and Kosovo
results other countries
Results – other countries
  • Over five years, Poland reduced its number of primary schools by 10%
  • Lithuania reduced its small primary schools from 808 to 114
  • Russian Chuvash Republic reduced its total number of schools by 18%
  • Armenia reduced its teaching staff by 35% by offering a generous package of training and payments for severance, relocation, and small business start-up support
  • Performance of the PCF in different countries varies due to different methods of implementation.
pcf in the kyrgyz republic
PCF in the Kyrgyz Republic
  • Initial pilot in Issyk-Ata rayon, Chui oblast
  • PCF and formula for calculating categorical grant based on the minimum standards were introduced in Batken and Issyk-Kul oblasts
  • Expansion of the above to Bishkek and Osh is planned for 2012
  • USAID financed introduction of the PCF to Chui
going forward the jury is still out
Going Forward - The Jury Is Still Out
  • Implementation of PCF is at the early stage and continues to evolve
  • Adjustments will be done with progress of PCF
  • An evaluation is still underway to assess the results and inform the future implementation
  • A lots of variables in the process would influence the final results
current regional disparities
Current regional disparities
  • The number of pupils per teacher varies from 9.7 in Naryn to 17.2 in Osh city
  • Teacher wages also vary a lot: from 72,000 in Issyk-Kul to 145,000 Som in Bishkek
    • There may be some room for equalization and efficiency improvement
    • But population density may be an obstacle for school/class consolidation
margins of efficiency are limited 1 2
Margins of efficiency are limited (1/2)
  • One can seek savings through
    • Optimization of classes within schools (without school mergers or closures) by fixing a ceiling number of pupils by class
    • Optimization by merging the smallest sections (i.e. set of classes taught in a given language) without closing the schools
  • Simulations can be realized using the Osh1 data.
margins of efficiency are limited 2 2
Margins of efficiency are limited (2/2)
  • By setting a maximum number of pupils by class of 33, one would save 1,800 teachers’ positions (2.6%)
  • Setting a ceiling of 30 only would lead to an increased wage bill of 3.2%.
    • Classes are already large in certain areas
  • By merging the small sections (less than 10 pupils) at the municipal (without school closures) one could save an additional 1350 teachers’ position (savings up to 4.6% in total).
    • More than 12,500 pupils should be bussed within the municipalities