Member Name October, 2009
What You Need to Know About Safe Lifting & Back Injury Prevention in Less Than 30 Minutes
Training Objectives • Scope of Back Injury Problem • Risk Factors – the whole story • Ergonomics • Simple body “mechanics” principles for safe lifting • Stretching and Warm-up
Problem is Huge …..…not to mention painful • 80 % of population will experience severe back pain • 25-40% of injury frequency • 40- 60% of workers compensation costs • Billion and billions of $$ • Causation is complex and multi-faceted • #1 Cause and Cost of Injury for FSRM Members
Job Risk Factors • Weight of the object lifted, pushed, pulled… • Location of person in relation to lift • Frequency and Duration • Rest and recovery periods • Load stability and shape • Workplace layout and equipment • Training • Environmental factors • How work is organized • Available lift assists
Personal Risk Factors • Age - strength/endurance decrease • Body shape - tall vs.. short • Stress/distractions on and off the job • Lifestyle - habits, hobbies, health, diet • Gender - differences • Impact load on back – e.g. jumping off tailgate, ramp, truck cab and lift truck • Lifting techniques utilized
The Living Machine Most work habits develop at an age when our bodies are virtually indestructible (or so we sometimes believe)!
The Living Machine - Typical 24 Hours • Sleeping • Driving • Work • Child Care • House Work • Watching ESPN “It is not just about how you use your body while working, but all day long!”
Pain is a great motivator • What can you do? • Ergonomics • Body Mechanics (Choices) • Stretching & Warm-up
Ergonomics • Ergonomics is about fitting jobs to the people who work them. • The goal of ergonomics is to: • Reduce Injuries • Get More Done with Less Effort • Get it Done Right the First Time
Applying Ergonomics • Think about ways to reduce the risks associated with: • Repetition • High Force • Awkward Postures • Distance • Vibration, Heat, Cold
20 lbs. LEAD 20 lbs. Lifts: Which load is heavier? h
Lifts In order to hold a 20-lb weight at about 8 inches from your spine, you must exert a counteracting force of 80 lbs.
Lifts When lifting loads in work situations, you often need to extend your arms and slightly bend forward. The body center of gravity shifts forward and some of the weight of your upper body must also be taken into account. For example, in order to support a 20-lb weight at 20 inches from the spine while leading forward, the counteracting force must be equal roughly to 400 lbs. F1 F2
Key Point • What is obvious from this picture? • Force • Distance • F x D = ?
For every action there is… • When muscles contract to cause movement there is an opposite muscles that counters that motion to keep the body in balance. • Not all muscles react at the same speed. • Key: Avoid fast, jerky, motions – move smoothly.
If you remember anything, remember... • 1.Force x Distance!!! • Reduce the distance • To the center of gravity of object • Get close to the load, hug it • Turn object up on shortest dimension • Avoid above shoulder lift • Avoid below knee • Maintain neutral posture • Avoid twisting, move your feet • Reduce the force • Know your lift limits; test load • Get help • Use mechanical assist devices • Lift slowly (Force = MA, Newton’s Laws) • 2. Slow your motions • 3. Drink more water!!! • 4. Breathe while lifting, don’t hold breath!
Pay Attention to How You Use Your Body... ...Because it is paying attention to how you use it!
Body Mechanics, it’s not about right or wrong... …it’sabout better!
Body Mechanics Principles • Keep it Close! • Power Positions! • Staggered Stance! • Feet First? • Build A Bridge! • Prepare and Compensate!
The Power Positions • Arms • Legs • Back Lifts performed between waist and chest level promotes effective use of these muscles.
Normal Stance Lifting Stance Staggered Stance • Wide base of support • Feet apart • Diagonal Foot position
440 lbs 549 lbs Feet First • Lead with your feet • Not with your head
Build a Bridge • Avoid standing or lifting while bent forward • If you must, then build a bridge • For one-handed activities or lifts • Place the other hand on a steady object or your own knee to take your own body weight out of the lift • For two-handed activities or lifts • Stagger your stance placing one foot forward of the other to place support under your body weight • Be aware of “invisible” lifts (head, body, twists) • Eliminate the weight of the upper body from the lift
Prepare and Compensate:When Standing! • Get a foot up • Bend knees • Staggered stance Where else do you commonly see foot rails?
Prepare and Compensate:Watch your Head! • Your head weighs 10-12 pounds. • Head forward posture puts up to three times more force on the base of your neck. • Headaches are associated with this posture.
Prepare and Compensation:Pull and Push Pushing is easier!
In most industries how do you determine if a lift is a one person or two person lift? Prepare and Compensation:Get help when needed!
…and if he gets hurt, it’s a two person lift! You let one person lift it...
Lifting Principles • See It • Think It • Do It • Keep it Close • Power Positions • Staggered Stance • Build a Bridge • Prepare and Compensate
On What Date Did You Lose Your Flexibility? • It did not happen on a specific date. • You lost it gradually over time. • Be patient. It will take time to regain it.
Prepare and CompensateStretching and Warm-up • Why do animals stretch? • Why do athletes stretch? • Why don’t most people stretch?
Why Do Animals Stretch? • Their bodies says stretch and they stretch. • Your body says stretch and you have a debate.
Why Do Athletes Stretch? • Enhances safety. • To warm muscles and increase ease of movement • Stretching decreases muscle fatigue after the game • Enhances performance. • To increase blood flow to working muscles
Why Don’t Most People Stretch? • Not accepted behavior • “I look silly” or “not cool” • Environment not conducive • “no time” • Does not always feel good in beginning. • Previous injuries
Why Does Stretching Help? • It allows your body to breathe! • When muscles fatigue they need oxygen. • Stretching provides it! • Increase blood flow which improves oxygen exchanges • Increased blood flow promotes healing
Warming-up and Stretching • Warm-up • Warm muscle is easier to stretch than cold muscle • Warming allows your muscle to take full advantage of your existing flexibility • Stretching • Opens pathway for blood & oxygen • Helps muscle recover from activity • Speeds up removal of toxins from working muscle
Back Safety is about choices • Ergonomics • Body Mechanics • Stretching What do you choose?