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Diversity around us Kramfors meeting, March 10-14, 2008

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  1. Diversity around us Kramfors meeting, March 10-14, 2008 TAKING CARE OF NATURE Nature conservation in Galicia Facing an environmental problem: marine litter IES Val Miñor

  2. Nature conservation in Galicia Smooth hills and eroded old mountains mostly green and forested The coast has as major feature the Rías: fjord-like indentations as result of crustal tectonic movements during the Tertiary age and the falling and rising sea level throughout the ice age

  3. But Galicia has preserved few of its dense Atlantic forests We have no extensive natural forest areas • People live very spread out on the territory • Continual spread of the Eucalyptus tree, imported from Australia at the end of XIX Century, and used for the paper mill industry • Progressive deforestation • Forest fires

  4. Nevertheless, we conserve some natural forest and natural waterways, protected under the NATURA 2000 network Atlantic forest Oak tree Chestnut tree Hazel nut tree Birch tree Yew tree Mediterranean forest Cork tree Laurel tree

  5. House building from tourism • Oil spills from tankers (1970, 1976, 1979, 1992, 2002)‏ • Pollution from aquaculture and fishing activities At the coast, are the major issues concerning the environment A number of wetlands distributed along the coast are important as habitats for birds and are used as resting places during seasonal migration. These areas are protected under the “Ramsar Treaty” or were designed as “Special Protected Areas”, and belong to NATURA 2000 network. Besides wetlands, other places such as the cliffs of the “Costa da Morte”, and “Marine Reserves “ for fishing purposes are also included in NATURA 2000 network

  6. Two NATURA 2000 sites in the neirbourhood of our school “Ilas Atlánticas” National Park High School The “Foz”

  7. “ILLAS ATLÁNTICAS” NATIONAL PARK It is the only one National Park we have in Galicia, and includes six islands located off the southern coast of Galicia In this sea-land ecosystem it has been recorded more than 200 alga types and 400 land plant species has been recorded, and it is home to the largest Laurel forest in Europe. The fauna is represented with more than 200 species of different animals including an important colony of sea birds • 22.000 couples of Yellow-leg Seagulls • 1000 couples of Shags • Important colonies of Black-headed Seagull • Guillemots (today in danger of extinction)‏ • Sea birds such as Man Shearwaters, Storm Petrels, ..

  8. The “Foz” A small estuary in the mouth of “Miñor” river • Protection against storms and erosion • Flood control • Resting place for migratory birds such as waders • Aquaculture production: clams, cockles and oysters • Cultural values This wetland provides

  9. We celebrate “2008 World Wetland Day” on February 2nd, visiting the “Foz” and learning about wetlands and birds Kingfisher Oystercatcher Grey Heron Yellow-leg Seagul Little Egret Mallard Turstone Curlew

  10. MARINE LITTER any persistent and manufactured solid material, discarded or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment. on worldwide beaches floating on the water surface on the seabed: 70% of heavier components

  11. The total input into the oceans and seas worldwide 6.400,000 tonnes per year 8.000,000 items every day

  12. it travels huge distances with ocean currents and winds It is long-lived and active for decades It entails economic losses to fishermen, boat owners, tourism, …. Is a threat to marine life and humans

  13. Litter on the European Atlantic coast • The total number of marine litter items varied considerably among different beaches. • It were found on average of 542 items /km. • 14 of the 20 most frequently marine litter items were made of plastic. • Small pieces of plastic ropes, nets and cords were the most frequently occurring items. • The proportion of plastic or polystyrene marine litter items had increased in 10% from 2001 to 2006.

  14. Animals at risk About 100,000 marine mammals are killed each year About 1million seabirds are killed by entanglement and ingestion Turtles are killed by ingestion, because plastic bags look like their favourite food: jellyfish Corals are killed when discarded fishing nets drag along the ocean floor

  15. Marine litter Biodegradation timeline

  16. How can we face the marine litter environmental problem? carrying out a survey about the presence of marine litter on a beach in our Municipality cleaning the beach promoting public awareness of marine litter

  17. All the students of the secondary school were split into small teams and each team was placed on a different part of the beach

  18. At the Beach each team member has their own task carrying the plastic bag taking notes picking up the litter and putting it into a big plastic bag

  19. we worked hard for more than 3 hours

  20. but at the end, the beach was cleaned and litter was handed in to the local environmental authorities to be managed in a properly way

  21. What did we find on the beach? We carry out our surveys in early spring, after the last winter storms and before the beach is cleaned by the Municipality

  22. it is possible to find everything we use in daily life on beaches, coming from the land, or coming from the sea Plastic & Polistirene Bottles Glasses Bags Car parts Boxes Fishing nets Ropes Paper Cigar butts Cigarette packs Newspapers Rubber Tyres Balloons Boots Wood Parts of chairs Paint brushes Fish boxes Textiles Sacs Shoes Clothes Cords Metal Painting tins Food tins Gadgets Glass Bottles Jars Lamp bulbs Medical waste Syringes Medicines Sanitary waste Sanitary towels Condoms Animal faeces

  23. and plastics are always on the top Bottles Bags Car parts Boxes Fishing nets Ropes Crabs pots Fishing lines Hair brushes Crates Hard hats Foam Shoes Shotgun cartridges Pens Cups Lighters Strapping band and much more 2005 2006 2007

  24. That's all Folks