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Diversity around us Kramfors meeting, March 10-14, 2008. TAKING CARE OF NATURE. Nature conservation in Galicia. Facing an environmental problem: marine litter. IES Val Miñor . Nature conservation in Galicia. Smooth hills and eroded old mountains mostly green and forested.

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slide1

Diversity around us

Kramfors meeting, March 10-14, 2008

TAKING CARE OF NATURE

Nature conservation

in Galicia

Facing an environmental

problem: marine litter

IES Val Miñor

slide2

Nature conservation

in Galicia

Smooth hills and eroded old mountains

mostly green and forested

The coast has as major feature the Rías: fjord-like indentations

as result of crustal tectonic movements during the Tertiary age

and the falling and rising sea level throughout the ice age

slide3

But Galicia has preserved few of its dense Atlantic forests

We have no extensive natural forest areas

  • People live very spread out on the territory
  • Continual spread of the Eucalyptus tree, imported from Australia at the end of XIX Century, and used for the paper mill industry
  • Progressive deforestation
  • Forest fires
slide4

Nevertheless, we conserve some natural forest

and natural waterways, protected

under the NATURA 2000 network

Atlantic forest

Oak tree

Chestnut tree

Hazel nut tree

Birch tree

Yew tree

Mediterranean

forest

Cork tree

Laurel tree

slide5

House building from tourism

  • Oil spills from tankers (1970, 1976, 1979, 1992, 2002)‏
  • Pollution from aquaculture and fishing activities

At the coast,

are the major issues concerning the environment

A number of wetlands distributed along the coast are important as habitats for birds and are used as resting places during seasonal migration.

These areas are protected under the “Ramsar Treaty” or were designed as “Special Protected Areas”, and belong to NATURA 2000 network.

Besides wetlands, other places such as the cliffs of the “Costa da Morte”, and “Marine Reserves “ for fishing purposes are also included in NATURA 2000 network

slide6

Two NATURA 2000 sites

in the neirbourhood of our school

“Ilas Atlánticas”

National Park

High School

The “Foz”

slide7

“ILLAS ATLÁNTICAS” NATIONAL PARK

It is the only one National Park we have in Galicia, and includes six islands located off the southern coast of Galicia

In this sea-land ecosystem it has been recorded more than 200 alga types and 400 land plant species has been recorded, and it is home to the largest Laurel forest in Europe.

The fauna is represented with more than 200 species of different animals including an important colony of sea birds

  • 22.000 couples of Yellow-leg Seagulls
  • 1000 couples of Shags
  • Important colonies of Black-headed Seagull
  • Guillemots (today in danger of extinction)‏
  • Sea birds such as Man Shearwaters, Storm Petrels, ..
slide8

The “Foz”

A small estuary in the mouth of “Miñor” river

  • Protection against storms and erosion
  • Flood control
  • Resting place for migratory birds such as waders
  • Aquaculture production: clams, cockles and oysters
  • Cultural values

This wetland

provides

slide9

We celebrate

“2008 World Wetland Day” on February 2nd,

visiting the “Foz” and learning

about wetlands and birds

Kingfisher

Oystercatcher

Grey Heron

Yellow-leg Seagul

Little Egret

Mallard

Turstone

Curlew

slide10

MARINE LITTER

any persistent and manufactured solid material, discarded or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment.

on worldwide

beaches

floating on the water surface

on the seabed:

70% of heavier components

slide11

The total input

into the oceans and seas worldwide

6.400,000 tonnes per year

8.000,000 items every day

slide12

it travels huge distances with ocean currents and winds

It is long-lived and active for decades

It entails economic losses to fishermen, boat owners, tourism, ….

Is a threat to marine life and humans

slide13

Litter on the European Atlantic coast

  • The total number of marine litter items varied considerably among different beaches.
  • It were found on average of 542 items /km.
  • 14 of the 20 most frequently marine litter items were made of plastic.
  • Small pieces of plastic ropes, nets and cords were the most frequently occurring items.
  • The proportion of plastic or polystyrene marine litter items had increased in 10% from 2001 to 2006.
slide14

Animals at risk

About 100,000 marine mammals are killed each year

About 1million seabirds are killed by entanglement and ingestion

Turtles are killed by ingestion, because plastic bags look like their favourite food: jellyfish

Corals are killed when discarded fishing nets drag along the ocean floor

slide15

Marine litter

Biodegradation timeline

slide16

How can we face

the marine litter environmental problem?

carrying out a survey about the presence of marine litter on a beach in our Municipality

cleaning the beach

promoting public awareness of marine litter

slide17

All the students of the secondary school

were split into small teams

and each team was placed

on a different part of the beach

slide18

At the Beach

each team member has their own task

carrying

the plastic bag

taking notes

picking up the litter and putting it

into a big plastic bag

slide19

we worked hard

for more than 3 hours

slide20

but at the end, the beach was cleaned

and litter was handed in to the

local environmental authorities

to be managed in a properly way

slide21

What did we find on the beach?

We carry out our surveys in early spring,

after the last winter storms and

before the beach is cleaned by the Municipality

slide22

it is possible to find everything we use in daily life on beaches,

coming from the land, or coming from the sea

Plastic

& Polistirene

Bottles

Glasses

Bags

Car parts

Boxes

Fishing nets

Ropes

Paper

Cigar butts

Cigarette packs

Newspapers

Rubber

Tyres

Balloons

Boots

Wood

Parts of chairs

Paint brushes

Fish boxes

Textiles

Sacs

Shoes

Clothes

Cords

Metal

Painting tins

Food tins

Gadgets

Glass

Bottles

Jars

Lamp bulbs

Medical waste

Syringes

Medicines

Sanitary waste

Sanitary towels

Condoms

Animal faeces

slide23

and plastics are always on the top

Bottles

Bags

Car parts

Boxes

Fishing nets

Ropes

Crabs pots

Fishing lines

Hair brushes

Crates

Hard hats

Foam

Shoes

Shotgun cartridges

Pens

Cups

Lighters

Strapping band

and

much more

2005

2006

2007