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Political Systems Test Review. Types of Government. King Henry VIII of England. Monarchy. A hereditary ruler controls the government and decides what it should do. Inherits power Divine Right- “will of God”. Constitutional Monarchy.

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King Henry VIII of England


A hereditary ruler controls the government and decides what it should do.

Inherits power

Divine Right- “will of God”

Constitutional Monarchy

Power is shared between the monarch and an elected legislature

Subjects (the people) of the monarch have protected rights

Monarch serves as the symbolic head of state

Members of Parliament (in England) govern the country


A government without a king or queen

Representatives are chosen to make decisions

democracy greek for people power
Democracy (Greek for People Power)
  • DIRECT Democracy
    • Each citizen has a vote and votes directly.
    • Different social groups elected their own representatives and met in assemblies
  • A single person or small group exercises complete power over others.
  • Power is not inherited
    • Seizes control by force
    • Or placed into position of authority by others
    • Sometimes the military seized power
  • Dictators may do as they please
    • Citizens have little influence over policies

Idi Amin Dada – President of Uganda 1971-1979

Robert Mugabe – Zimbabwe – (used police to block opponents from voting, arrested and tortured opponents)

Fidel Castro – Cuba 1959 - 2008

totalitarian systems
Totalitarian Systems

The Government controls every aspect of individual life

People can only belong to organizations controlled by the government

Religion banned or controlled by government

Control of all television, radio, and newspapers.

Dissent is suppressed and citizens terrorized by secret police

If you oppose the government you are arrested and sent to labor camps or killed

totalitarian rulers
Totalitarian Rulers

Adolf Hitler – Germany

Joseph Stalin – USSR

Saddam Hussein – Iraq

Modern Day

Kim Jong-un – N. Korea

Raul Castro – Cuba

  • A government run by religious leaders
  • Government claims to be directed by God, or divinely blessed
  • Examples
    • Ayatollah Ali Khamenei - Iran
    • Pope – Vatican City

Supranational Cooperation


  • Supranational
    • International cooperation in which countries give up some control of their affairs as they work together to achieve shared goals
  • Interdependence
    • Many people dependent on each other, not just themselves
  • Trade bloc
    • A group of countries that work together to promote trade with one another
  • Common market
    • A group of countries that acts as a single market, without trade barriers between member countries
  • Centrifugal
    • A force that divides people and countries; “push factor”
  • Centripetal
    • A force that unites people and countries; “pull factor”










the berlin conference 1884 1885
The Berlin Conference(1884-1885)

In the 19th century, Europe’s industrialized countries became interested in Africa’s raw materials.

In 1884, European powers met in Berlin to divide up Africa.

Who was not invited to

the conference?


Berlin Conference Described(3:44)


Which were the only countries that managed to remain independent?

African Scramble Through the Years

long reaching effects
Long Reaching Effects
  • The Europeans did not care what groups they put together:

-Several hundred ethnic groups

-Thousands of languages

-Multiple Religions: Islam, Christian, Animist

  • Land locked countries were created.

-Some trade and migration routes were cut off by these borders.

-Some countries were left with little access to water.

  • By the 1970s, most of Africa had regained its independence from Europebut Europeans had not prepared African nations for independence

South Africa

  • Dutch settlers descendants known as Boers (“farmers” in Dutch)
  • -also called “Afrikaners” and dev. lang. Afrikaans
  • Early 1800’s-British take over Cape area; discovery of diamonds & gold
  • Boer War 1899-1902 = fight to control mineral wealth by Boers & British; British win-take South Africa, but give it freedom in 1910.
After South Africa gains freedom, Afrikaners take over the gov’t.
  • 1948-”apartheid” (separateness)

= Black South Africans denied rights

  • 1991 – apartheid ended
nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela
  • 1944-Joined ANC (African National Congress)
  • 1963-64 Mandela on trial for plotting to overthrow the government by violence -sentenced to life imprisonment
  • 1990-Nelson Mandela released from jail
  • 1993-wins Nobel Peace Prize with FW de Klerk
  • 1994-1stblack president of South Africa

Viva Mandela: A Hero for All Ages - Mandela Elected President in 1994

(United Streaming -7 min)


Nationalism - a feeling that people have of being loyal to and proud of their country often with the belief that it is better and more important than other countries

  • Sovereign - one possessing or held to possess supreme political power or sovereignty
  • Imperialism - a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force
  • Democracy - a form of government in which people choose leaders by voting

Sanctions - To impose a sanction (a threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule.) or penalty on.

  • Interdependence - members of the group are mutually dependent on the others.
  • DMZ - a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula that serves as a buffer zone between North and South Korea. It is located on the 38th parallel