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مصطلح الحديث. M uṣṭalaḥ Al- ḥ adīth Hadith Terminology. oop. Learning Intention for this WORKSHOP إن شاء الله. 1. 3. 2. Varioius issues regarding Ahadith. Hadith Structure. Orientalists and Hadith. 1. Isnad & Matn Mutawaatir & Ahaad Hadith according to its origins

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Learning Intention forthisWORKSHOP إن شاء الله

1

3

2

Varioius issues regarding Ahadith

HadithStructure

OrientalistsandHadith

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1

  • Isnad & Matn
  • Mutawaatir & Ahaad
  • Hadith according to its origins
  • Conditions for a saheeh Hadith

Hadith

Structure

  • KEY-facts
  • Mustalah Al-Hadith is a very sophisticated science
  • It only developed into a science in the Muslim scholarly community
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Distinct components of any Hadith …

Every Hadith has TWO very distinct components …

  • The MATN: The body/text of the Hadith
  • The ISNAAD: The chain of transmission
    • IbnHajrرحمه الله said: “A Khabr [Hadeeth] may have few Turuq/Isnaad (chains);either of a fixed number or an unfixed amount. There will either bemore than two Sanads or two or one.” [Nukhbat-ul-Fikr, page 10]
    • Muhammad ibnSirinرحمه الله said: “They did not previously inquire about the sanad. However, after the turmoil occurred they would say, ‘Name for us your narrators.’ So the people of the Sunnah would have their hadith accepted and the people of innovation would not.”[Reported by Muslim in the introduction to his Sahih, vol. 1, pg. 8]
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Mutawaatir& Ahaad

  • If the Isnaad has an unfixed amount of Turuq[different ways of transmission] than the Hadith is labeled as Mutawaatir
    • [either mutawaatirlafzee (wording) or mutawateerm’anawee (meaning)]
    • Narrated by a large number of scholars
    • Scholars are found in every level/generation of the chain
    • Impossibility of them gathering together to make up a lie
      • Serves ‘ilm-ul-yaqeen (definite or certainty of the narration)
  • Any Isnaad which does not fulfil the conditions of Mutawaatir is called Ahaad[mashoor: 3, people, ‘azeez: 2 people, ghareeb: 1 person … in every generation]
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Condition for a saheeh Hadith

  • Some ‘Ulama have established five conditions for a Hadith to be saheeh (authentic):
    • Good character of all its narrators
    • Good memory and precision on the part of narrators with regard to what they are narrating.
    • Continuous isnaad from beginning to end, meaning that each narrator heard the Hadith from the one before him.
    • The Hadith is free from any oddness in its isnaad or text. What is meant by “odd” is anything in which the narrator narrates something that contradicts the narration of a sounder narrator.
    • The Hadith is free from faults in its isnaad and text. A “fault” is a subtle problem that undermines the soundness of the Hadith, which can be detected only by the well versed scholars of Hadith
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Basic Structure in Mustalah Al-Hadith

CategorizationoftheHadithaccordingtoitsnarrationtous

Mutawatir

Ahaad

Hassan (good)

Rejected due to an error in theisnaad

Mardood

(rejected)

Makbool

(accepted)

Saheeh

(authentic)

Rejected due to an error in theRaawí (narrator)

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2

  • What is the difference between “saheehhadeeth” and “its isnaad is saheeh”
  • Are we allowed to narrate a Hadith by its meaning?
  • The six most famous Hadith collections

VariousissuesregardingAhadith

  • KEY-facts
  • In order to be a Muhadith one must dedicate ones whole live to learn the detailed issues of this science
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Difference between “saheehhadeeth” and “saheehisnaad”

  • Al-Haafizibn al-Salaahرحمه اللهsaid: “When they say “This hadeeth has a saheehisnaad or a hasanisnaad” instead of “this is a saheehhadeeth or a hasanhadeeth”, that is because it may be said that this hadeeth has a saheehisnaad but it is not saheeh per se because it is shaadhdh (odd) or mu’allal (faulty).”
  • [Muqaddimahfi ‘Uloomal-Hadeeth, page 23]
  • IbnKatheerرحمه الله said: “The fact that the isnaad is deemed to be saheeh or hasan does not necessarily mean that the same applies to the text, because it may be shaadhdh (odd) or mu’allal (faulty).”
  • [Ikhtisaar‘Uloomal-Hadeeth, page 43]
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Narrating a Hadith by its meaning

  • It is permissible for a person to narrate the meaning of a Hadith according to the majority of scholars, for one who has knowledge of Arabic and is free of the risk of making mistakes or changing the meaning which would lead to changing the ruling. But that changing of the wording is not allowed in the case of words that used in worship such as dhikr and du’athat are narrated in ahadeeth.
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The six most famous Hadith collections

  • 1- Imam al-Bukhaari
      • Abu ‘Abd-Allaah Muhammad ibnIsmaa’eelibnIbraaheemibn al-MugheerahibnBardizbah al-Ja’fial-Bukhaari (194-256 AH)
  • 2- Imam Muslim
  • Muslim ibn al-Hajjaajibn Muslim al-Qushayrial-Nisapoori
  • Abu’l-Husayn (204-261 AH)
  • 3- Imam Abu Dawood(202-275 AH)
  • 4- Imam al-Tirmidhi(209-279 AH)
  • 5- Imam al-Nasaa’í(215-300 AH)
  • 6- ImaamIbnMaajah(209-273 AH)
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3

  • Who are some of the most famous Orientalists in regards to Hadith studies
  • Important notes regarding Orientalist studies of Hadith

OrientalistsandHadith

  • KEY-Facts
  • Orientalists were studying Hadith for the past two centuries
  • They studied Hadith for various reasons/intentions
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Some Orientalists who studied Hadith

  • Joseph Schacht
  • IgnazGoldzieher
  • G.H.A. Juynboll
  • Nabia Abbott
  • … and others
  • Orientalists had various reasons/intentions to study Hadith
  • There was some benefit which came from the Orientalist’s studies of Hadith
  • There is a lot of doubt about the Sunnah/Hadith spread by Orientalists
  • Many of their arguments against the Sunnah are self-defeating
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The End

By Abu Bilal Sanel Abdurrahman