Cycles of Matter Chapter 2.2
Matter can be recycled • Matter is anything that takes up space (solid, liquids, and gases) • Energy can’t be recycled • Matter is recycled by moving in cycles, which means they are reused in different ways
This is when water moves from Earth’s surface, to the atmosphere, and then back to the surface
Evaporation • This is when liquid water turns to gas (steam) • Mostly happens on lakes and oceans • Energy from the sun makes water evaporate
Condensation • This is when water gas (water vapor) cools and turns back into liquid. • Droplets of water stick to a piece of dust and make clouds
Precipitation • When too much water is in the clouds it rains, snows or hails and falls back to Earth • This is called precipitation
All living things need carbon and oxygen • Producers (like plants) take in Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere • They make sugars, which consumers eat • Oxygen is released by the producers and used by consumers
Nitrogen is used by living things to make amino acids, which make proteins, which make…everything. • Muscles, DNA, RNA • The air you breathe is 78% nitrogen but you can’t use it. • Why not?
So how do we get nitrogen? • Eat it!
“Free” nitrogen is the kind in the air. • Bacteria in the ground captures the free nitrogen and makes it “fixed” so plants can use it.
Nitrogen Fixation • Nitrogen Fixation is when bacteria takes the free nitrogen and make it usable by breaking the bonds. • They live in soil, water, and even bumps on some bean and nut plant roots.
Return of nitrogen • Once nitrogen is fixed the plants use it. • Decomposers break down the dead plants (and things that eat the plants when they die). • They give nitrogen back to the ground and release some to air again.
Biogeochemical vocabulary • reservoir: something that holds the substance over a long amount of time • flux: change • source: a reservoir that gives off more of the substance than it takes in • sink: a reservoir that takes in more of a substance than it gives off
What is phosphorus? • Animals need it to filter waste, repair tissue, produce energy • Plants need it for cell division and development of new tissue.
Algal Blooms • 50 years ago, cause of algal blooms unknown. • Maybe carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus from agricultural runoff. • Small-scale experiments inconclusive. • David Schindler divided a lake using a plastic divider curtain in two. • Carbon and nitrogen were added to one half • Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were added to the other half. • For eight years, phosphorus side developed algal blooms, other did not.